KSPPINM 11g R2 11.2.0.4.0 19c 19.3.0.0.0 KSPDESC New description
DBFIPS_140 n/a Enable use of crypographic libraries in FIPS mode, public  
O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY n/a Version 7 Dictionary Accessibility Support  
_4030_dump_bitvec bitvec to specify dumps prior to 4030 error  
_4031_dump_bitvec bitvec to specify dumps prior to 4031 error  
_4031_dump_interval Dump 4031 error once for each n-second interval  
_4031_max_dumps Maximum number of 4031 dumps for this process  
_4031_sga_dump_interval Dump 4031 SGA heapdump error once for each n-second interval  
_4031_sga_max_dumps Maximum number of SGA heapdumps  
_AllowMultInsteadofDDLTrigger n/a Oracle internal parameter to allow multiple instead of DDL triggers  
_EnableDDLTtriggerTracing n/a enable ddl trigger tracing  
_EnableShadowTypes n/a enable shadow types  
_ILM_FILTER_TIME n/a Upper filter time for ILM block compression  
_ILM_FILTER_TIME_LOWER n/a Lower filter time for ILM block compression  
_ILM_POLICY_NAME n/a User specified ILM policy name  
_NUMA_bind_mode n/a Numa bind mode  
_NUMA_float_spawner n/a float process spawner  
_NUMA_instance_mapping Set of nodes that this instance should run on  
_NUMA_pool_size aggregate size in bytes of NUMA pool  
_PX_use_large_pool Use Large Pool as source of PX buffers  
_REMOVE_INACTIVE_STANDBY_TDE_MASTER_KEY n/a Remove Inactive Standby TDE Master Key  
_REMOVE_STDBY_OLD_KEY_AFTER_CHECKPOINT_SCN n/a Remove standby old key after checkpoint SCN  
_STFTranslateDynamicSQL n/a if TRUE translation profile will translate dynamic SQL statements  
_VIEW_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY n/a View Dictionary Accessibility Support  
__asm_max_connected_clients n/a The high water mark value for connected clients  
__data_transfer_cache_size n/a Actual size of data transfer cache  
__db_16k_cache_xmem_size_metadata n/a Size of extended cache metadata for 16k buffer pool  
__db_2k_cache_xmem_size_metadata n/a Size of extended cache metadata for 2k buffer pool  
__db_32k_cache_xmem_size_metadata n/a Size of extended cache metadata for 32k buffer pool  
__db_4k_cache_xmem_size_metadata n/a Size of extended cache metadata for 4k buffer pool  
__db_8k_cache_xmem_size_metadata n/a Size of extended cache metadata for 8k buffer pool  
__db_cache_size Actual size of DEFAULT buffer pool for standard block size buffers  
__db_cache_xmem_size_metadata n/a Size of extended memory metadata of DEFAULT buffer pool for standard block size buffers  
__db_keep_cache_xmem_size_metadata n/a Size of extended cache metadata of KEEP buffer pool for standard block size buffers  
__db_recycle_cache_xmem_size_metadata n/a Size of extended memory metadata of recycle buffer pool for standard block size buffers  
__dg_broker_service_names service names for broker use  
__inmemory_ext_roarea n/a Actual size in bytes of inmemory ro extension area  
__inmemory_ext_rwarea n/a Actual size in bytes of inmemory rw extension area  
__java_pool_size Actual size in bytes of java pool  
__large_pool_size Actual size in bytes of large pool  
__latch_test_param n/a latch test parameter  
__maintenance_is_planned n/a Is maintenance scheduled soon?  
__memoptimize_xmem_pool_size_metadata n/a Size of extended cache metadata of MEMOPTIMIZE buffer pool for standard block size buffers  
__oracle_base ORACLE_BASE  
__persistent_cl2_slave_size n/a Actual size of slave cluster flash cache for default block size  
__pga_aggregate_target Current target size for the aggregate PGA memory consumed  
__reload_lsnr n/a reload listener  
__sga_current_size n/a Current size for PDB SGA  
__sga_target Actual size of SGA  
__shared_io_pool_size Actual size of shared IO pool  
__shared_pool_size Actual size in bytes of shared pool  
__streams_pool_size Actual size in bytes of streams pool  
__unified_pga_pool_size n/a Actual size in bytes of unified pga pool  
__wait_test_param n/a wait test parameter  
_abort_on_mrp_crash abort database instance when MRP crashes  
_abort_recovery_on_join if TRUE, abort recovery on join reconfigurations  
_ac_enable_dscn_in_rac n/a Enable Dependent Commit SCN tracking  
_ac_strict_SCN_check n/a enforce strict SCN check for AC replay across DG failover  
_accept_versions List of parameters for rolling operation  
_active_instance_count number of active instances in the cluster database  
_active_session_idle_limit active session idle limit  
_active_session_legacy_behavior active session legacy behavior  
_active_standby_fast_reconfiguration if TRUE optimize dlm reconfiguration for active/standby OPS  
_adaptive_direct_read Adaptive Direct Read  
_adaptive_direct_write Adaptive Direct Write  
_adaptive_fetch_enabled enable/disable adaptive fetch in parallel group by  
_adaptive_log_file_sync_high_switch_freq_threshold Threshold for frequent log file sync mode switches (per minute)  
_adaptive_log_file_sync_poll_aggressiveness Polling interval selection bias (conservative=0, aggressive=100)  
_adaptive_log_file_sync_sampling_count n/a Evaluate post/wait versus polling every N writes  
_adaptive_log_file_sync_sampling_time n/a Evaluate post/wait versus polling every N seconds  
_adaptive_log_file_sync_sched_delay_window Window (in seconds) for measuring average scheduling delay  
_adaptive_log_file_sync_use_polling_threshold Ratio of redo synch time to expected poll time as a percentage  
_adaptive_log_file_sync_use_postwait_threshold Percentage of foreground load from when post/wait was last used  
_adaptive_log_file_sync_use_postwait_threshold_aging n/a Permille of foreground load from when post/wait was last used  
_adaptive_scalable_log_writer_disable_worker_threshold n/a Percentage of overlap across multiple outstanding writes  
_adaptive_scalable_log_writer_enable_worker_aging n/a Per million of redo gen rate when LGWR workers were last used  
_adaptive_scalable_log_writer_enable_worker_threshold n/a Increase in redo generation rate as a percentage  
_adaptive_scalable_log_writer_sampling_count n/a Evaluate single versus scalable LGWR every N writes  
_adaptive_scalable_log_writer_sampling_time n/a Evaluate single versus scalable LGWR every N seconds  
_adaptive_window_consolidator_enabled n/a enable/disable adaptive window consolidator PX plan  
_add_col_optim_enabled Allows new add column optimization  
_add_nullable_column_with_default_optim n/a Allows add of a nullable column with default optimization  
_add_stale_mv_to_dependency_list add stale mv to dependency list  
_add_trim_for_nlssort add trimming for fixed char semantics  
_addm_auto_actions_enabled n/a determines if ADDM can automatically implement its recommendations  
_addm_auto_enable governs whether ADDM gets run automatically after every AWR snapshot  
_addm_skiprules comma-separated list of ADDM nodes to skip  
_addm_version_check governs whether ADDM checks the input AWR snapshot version  
_adg_adt_redirect_apply_lag_threshold n/a Maximum centi-secends of apply lag threshold  
_adg_adt_redirect_catchup_wait_time n/a Maximum centi-secends for standby to catch up  
_adg_auto_close_pdb n/a ADG recovery auto close PDB upon PDB drop/unplug/rename marker  
_adg_count_beyond_limit n/a Count the total number of objects if beyond redo marker length.  
_adg_defer_segstat n/a Defer the segment statistics update on standby.  
_adg_distributed_lockmaster n/a standby runs under ADG distributed lockmaster mode  
_adg_influx_qscn_gap n/a maximium time gap between influx scn and qscn update in seconds  
_adg_instance_recovery enable ADG instance recovery  
_adg_objectlock_attempts n/a Maximum attemps for objectlock get on ADG  
_adg_objectlock_maxnum n/a The maximum limit of the objectlock number on ADG  
_adg_objectlock_timeout n/a timeout for objectlock get on ADG in centiseconds  
_adg_parselock_timeout timeout for parselock get on ADG in centiseconds  
_adg_parselock_timeout_sleep sleep duration after a parselock timeout on ADG in milliseconds  
_adg_redirect_upd_to_primary_max_retries n/a max retries for ADT redirect to Primary from ADG  
_adjust_literal_replacement If TRUE, we will adjust the SQL/PLUS output  
_adr_migrate_runonce Enable/disable ADR Migrate Runonce action  
_advanced_index_compression_cmp_options n/a advanced index compression cmp options  
_advanced_index_compression_opt_options n/a advanced index compression opt options  
_advanced_index_compression_options n/a advanced index compression options  
_advanced_index_compression_options_value n/a advanced index compression options2  
_advanced_index_compression_recmp_crsz n/a advanced index compression limit recomp cr  
_advanced_index_compression_recmp_cusz n/a advanced index compression limit recomp cu  
_advanced_index_compression_recmp_nprg n/a advanced index compression limit recomp pu  
_advanced_index_compression_trace n/a advanced index compression trace  
_advanced_index_compression_tst_options n/a advanced index compression tst options  
_advanced_index_compression_umem_options n/a advanced index compression umem options  
_afd_disable_fence n/a Disable AFD fencing  
_affinity_on enable/disable affinity at run time  
_aged_out_cursor_cache_time number of seconds an aged out session cached cursor stay in cache  
_aggregation_optimization_settings settings for aggregation optimizations  
_aiowait_timeouts Number of aiowait timeouts before error is reported  
_alert_expiration seconds before an alert message is moved to exception queue  
_alert_message_cleanup Enable Alert Message Cleanup  
_alert_message_purge Enable Alert Message Purge  
_alert_post_background Enable Background Alert Posting  
_all_shared_dblinks treat all dblinks as shared  
_alloc_perm_as_free n/a allocate permanent chunks as freeable  
_allocate_creation_order should files be examined in creation order during allocation  
_allocate_flashback_buffer n/a Allocate flashback buffer at mount time even if flashback is off  
_allocation_update_interval interval at which successful search in L1 should be updated  
_allow_cell_smart_scan_attr Allow checking smart_scan_capable Attr  
_allow_commutativity allow for commutativity of +, * when comparing expressions  
_allow_compatibility_adv_w_grp allow advancing DB compatibility with guaranteed restore points  
_allow_convert_to_standby n/a allow convert to standby to go through  
_allow_cross_endian_dictionary n/a Allow cross-endian data dictionary  
_allow_drop_snapshot_standby_grsp Allow dropping snapshot standby guaranteed restore point  
_allow_drop_ts_with_grp Allow drop Tablespace with guaranteed restore points  
_allow_error_simulation Allow error simulation for testing  
_allow_file_1_offline_error_1245 n/a don't signal ORA-1245 due to file 1 being offline  
_allow_insert_with_update_check n/a Allow INSERT as statement_types when update_check is FALSE  
_allow_level_without_connect_by allow level without connect by  
_allow_read_only_corruption allow read-only open even if database is corrupt  
_allow_resetlogs_corruption allow resetlogs even if it will cause corruption  
_allow_terminal_recovery_corruption Finish terminal recovery even if it may cause corruption  
_alter_adg_redirect_behavior n/a Alter ADG's Redirection behavior  
_alter_upgrade_signature_only n/a alter table upgrade only sets signature  
_alternate_iot_leaf_block_split_points enable alternate index-organized table leaf-block split-points  
_always_anti_join always use this method for anti-join when possible  
_always_semi_join always use this method for semi-join when possible  
_always_star_transformation always favor use of star transformation  
_always_vector_transformation n/a always favor use of vector transformation  
_analyze_comprehensive n/a Analyze comprehensive mode  
_and_pruning_enabled allow partition pruning based on multiple mechanisms  
_app_container_debug n/a Enable Debug tracing in Application container  
_app_ctx_vers n/a enable app ctx versioning  
_app_default_containers n/a containers_default and container_map enabled by default on MDL application object  
_app_ignore_errors n/a ignore errors during containers() on application object  
_app_replay_silent_errors n/a silently ignore all errors during application sync  
_application_purge_enabled n/a Is an application purge allowed  
_application_script n/a Running an application script  
_apppdb_multi_slave_sync n/a Multiple slaves used during Application sync  
_appqos_cdb_setting n/a QoSM CDB Performance Class Setting  
_appqos_po_multiplier n/a Multiplier for PC performance objective value  
_appqos_qt System Queue time retrieval interval  
_approx_cnt_distinct_gby_pushdown n/a perform group-by pushdown for approximate distinct count query  
_approx_cnt_distinct_optimization n/a settings for approx_count_distinct optimizations  
_approx_perc_sampling_err_rate n/a error rate percentage of approximate percentile using sampling  
_approx_percentile_optimization n/a settings for approx_percentile optimization  
_apx_root_directory n/a APX default root directory  
_aq_Txn_ht_sz n/a Message cache Txn Hash table size  
_aq_addpt_batch_size n/a Add PT batch Size  
_aq_dly_bkt n/a Delay Bucket Size  
_aq_dq_prefetch_Siz n/a AQ PT DQ prefech Size  
_aq_dqblocks_in_cache n/a deq blocks in cache  
_aq_droppt_batch_size n/a Drop PT batch Size  
_aq_free_list_pools n/a state object and transaction memory pools  
_aq_init_shards n/a Minimum enqueue shards per queue at an instance  
_aq_ipc_max_slave n/a maximum number of slaves for knlpipcm  
_aq_latency_absolute_threshold n/a Absolute threshold greater than average latency  
_aq_latency_relative_threshold n/a Relative threshold of average latency  
_aq_lb_cycle n/a Time(seconds) between consecutive AQ load balancing efforts  
_aq_lb_garbage_col_interval n/a AQ LB garbage collect interval  
_aq_lb_stats_collect_cycle n/a Time(seconds) between consecutive AQ load statistics collection  
_aq_lb_subht_bkt_ltch n/a AQ LB subscriber ht bucket latches  
_aq_lb_subht_elm_ltch n/a AQ LB subscriber ht element latches  
_aq_lookback_size n/a AQ PT Look Back Size  
_aq_max_pdb_close_msg n/a Max Number of AQ Recovery Messages when pdb is closed  
_aq_max_scan_delay Maximum allowable scan delay for AQ indexes and IOTs  
_aq_opt_background_enabled n/a AQ: OPT Operations Background enabled  
_aq_opt_enabled n/a AQ: OPT Operations enabled  
_aq_opt_fudge_factor n/a AQ: OPT Fudge Factor for pre-fretching  
_aq_opt_min_evict_memory n/a AQ: OPT LWM memory for eviction to stop  
_aq_opt_preevict_dop n/a AQ: OPT Background: PreEvict Degree Of Parallelism  
_aq_opt_prefetch_dop n/a AQ: OPT Background: Prefetch Degree Of Parallelism  
_aq_opt_prefetch_horizon n/a AQ: OPT horizon for pre-fretching  
_aq_opt_stat_window n/a AQ: OPT Subscriber Statistics Window Size  
_aq_opt_stop_stat n/a AQ: OPT Stop Collection of Subscriber Statistics  
_aq_pt_processes n/a Partition background processes  
_aq_pt_shrink_frequency n/a PT shrink window Size  
_aq_pt_statistics_window n/a PT statistics sample window Size  
_aq_qt_prefetch_Size n/a AQ PT QT prefech Size  
_aq_retry_timeouts n/a retry timeouts  
_aq_scrambled_deqlog n/a scrambled deqlog  
_aq_shard_bitmap_child_latches n/a Bitmap child latches  
_aq_shard_child_latches n/a Shard child latches  
_aq_shard_prty_latches n/a Shard priority child latches  
_aq_shard_retry_child_latches n/a Retry child latches  
_aq_shard_sub_child_Elem_latches n/a Subscriber Element child latches  
_aq_shard_sub_child_latches n/a Subscriber child latches  
_aq_shard_txn_child_latches n/a Txn child latches  
_aq_stop_backgrounds n/a Stop all AQ background processes  
_aq_streaming_threshold n/a large payload threshold size  
_aq_subshard_Size n/a Sub Shard Size  
_aq_subshards_per_dqpartition n/a SubShards Per Deq Partition  
_aq_subshards_per_qpartition n/a SubShards Per Q Partition  
_aq_tm_deqcountinterval dequeue count interval for Time Managers to cleanup DEQ IOT BLOCKS  
_aq_tm_scanlimit scan limit for Time Managers to clean up IOT  
_aq_tm_statistics_duration statistics collection window duration  
_aq_truncpt_batch_size n/a Trunc PT batch Size  
_aq_uncached_stats n/a Uncached Stats  
_aq_x_mode n/a AQ - cross mode  
_aq_x_msg_size n/a AQ cross single message buffer size  
_aqsharded_cache_limit n/a Limit for cached enqueue/dequeue operations  
_arch_comp_dbg_scan archive compression scan debug  
_arch_comp_dec_block_check_dump decompress archive compression blocks for checking and dumping  
_arch_compress_checksums enable/disable row checksums for archive compressed blocks  
_arch_compression archive compression enabled  
_arch_io_slaves ARCH I/O slaves  
_arch_sim_mode Change behavior of local archiving  
_array_cdb_view_enabled n/a array mode enabled for CDB views  
_array_update_vector_read_enabled Enable array update vector read  
_ash_compression_enable To enable or disable string compression in ASH  
_ash_disk_filter_ratio Ratio of the number of in-memory samples to the number of samples actually written to disk  
_ash_disk_write_enable To enable or disable Active Session History flushing  
_ash_dummy_test_param Oracle internal dummy ASH parameter used ONLY for testing!  
_ash_eflush_trigger The percentage above which if the in-memory ASH is full the emergency flusher will be triggered  
_ash_enable To enable or disable Active Session sampling and flushing  
_ash_min_mmnl_dump Minimum Time interval passed to consider MMNL Dump  
_ash_progressive_flush_interval n/a ASH Progressive Flush interval in secs  
_ash_sample_all To enable or disable sampling every connected session including ones waiting for idle waits  
_ash_sampling_interval Time interval between two successive Active Session samples in millisecs  
_ash_size To set the size of the in-memory Active Session History buffers  
_asm_access n/a ASM File access mechanism  
_asm_access_assume_local n/a Assume IOS client is in the same cluster as IOS  
_asm_acd_chunks initial ACD chunks created  
_asm_admin_with_sysdba Does the sysdba role have administrative privileges on ASM?  
_asm_allow_appliance_dropdisk_noforce Allow DROP DISK/FAILUREGROUP NOFORCE on ASM Appliances  
_asm_allow_dangerous_unprotected_volumes n/a Disable checking for unprotected volumes in mirrored disk groups  
_asm_allow_dgname_special_chars n/a Enable the use of special characters in diskgroup names  
_asm_allow_foreign_siteguids n/a Disable checking for foreign siteguid on a given node  
_asm_allow_lvm_resilvering Enable disk resilvering for external redundancy  
_asm_allow_older_clients n/a Allow older clients to connect to the ASM server  
_asm_allow_only_raw_disks Discovery only raw devices  
_asm_allow_prepare_split n/a Allow database prepare and split in non-appliance mode  
_asm_allow_small_memory_target n/a Allow a small memory_target for ASM instances  
_asm_allow_system_alias_rename if system alias renaming is allowed  
_asm_allow_unsafe_reconnect n/a attempt unsafe reconnect to ASM  
_asm_allowdegeneratemounts n/a Allow force-mounts of DGs w/o proper quorum  
_asm_appliance_config_file Appliance configuration file name  
_asm_appliance_disable_fg_check n/a Disable failure group check  
_asm_appliance_ignore_oak n/a Ignore OAK appliance library  
_asm_appliance_slot_from_path n/a Get appliance disk slot from disk path  
_asm_asmb_max_wait_timeout n/a timeout before processes are signaled with network interrupt  
_asm_asmb_rcvto n/a Receive timeout for ASMB in seconds  
_asm_async_scrub_reap_wait n/a Async scrubbing reaping IO wait in microseconds  
_asm_audit_sp_param n/a ASM audit spare parameter  
_asm_ausize allocation unit size  
_asm_auto_online_interval n/a auto online interval  
_asm_automatic_rezone automatically rebalance free space across zones  
_asm_avoid_pst_scans Avoid PST Scans  
_asm_blksize metadata block size  
_asm_br_listener_port n/a Bitrotter listener port for testing purpose  
_asm_brfuzz_ios_lsnrport n/a IOS listener port for fuzzing with Bitrotter  
_asm_cancel_alert_time n/a Wait time for I/O cancel alert message (in seconds)  
_asm_cancel_delta n/a Delta timeout for blocking big writes in milliseconds  
_asm_cclient_cleanup_timeout n/a timeout before cleaning up remote cluster clients  
_asm_check_for_misbehaving_cf_clients check for misbehaving CF-holding clients  
_asm_compatibility default ASM compatibility level  
_asm_dba_batch ASM Disk Based Allocation Max Batch Size  
_asm_dba_spcchk_thld ASM Disk Based Allocation Space Check Threshold  
_asm_dba_threshold ASM Disk Based Allocation Threshold  
_asm_dbmsdg_nohdrchk dbms_diskgroup.checkfile does not check block headers  
_asm_dependency_under_cfenqueue n/a Send dependency request if holding CF enqueue  
_asm_diag_dead_clients diagnostics for dead clients  
_asm_direct_con_expire_time Expire time for idle direct connection to ASM instance  
_asm_disable_amdu_dump Disable AMDU dump  
_asm_disable_async_msgs disable async intra-instance messaging  
_asm_disable_dangerous_failgroup_checking n/a Disable checking for dubious failgroup configurations  
_asm_disable_failgroup_count_checking n/a Disable checking for failure group count  
_asm_disable_failgroup_size_checking n/a Disable checking for failure group size  
_asm_disable_multiple_instance_check Disable checking for multiple ASM instances on a given node  
_asm_disable_patch_compat n/a disable DG patch compatibility checks  
_asm_disable_proact_client_cleanup n/a disable proactive client cleanup  
_asm_disable_profilediscovery disable profile query for discovery  
_asm_disable_request_tracer n/a Disable kfioRqTracer  
_asm_disable_smr_creation Do Not create smr  
_asm_disable_ufg_dump disable terminated umbilicus diagnostic  
_asm_disable_ufgmemberkill n/a disable ufg member kill  
_asm_disable_vtoc_check n/a Disable vtoc/sector 0 check  
_asm_disable_vxn_map_messages n/a disable using vxn map messages  
_asm_disk_repair_time seconds to wait before dropping a failing disk  
_asm_diskerr_traces n/a Number of read/write errors per disk a process can trace  
_asm_diskgroups2 n/a disk groups to mount automatically set 2  
_asm_diskgroups3 n/a disk groups to mount automatically set 3  
_asm_diskgroups4 n/a disk groups to mount automatically set 4  
_asm_emulate_nfs_disk Emulate NFS disk test event  
_asm_emulmax max number of concurrent disks to emulate I/O errors max number of concurrent disks to emulate I /O errors
_asm_emultimeout timeout before emulation begins (in 3s ticks)  
_asm_enable_batch_scrub n/a Allow scrubbing verification to run in batch mode  
_asm_enable_kfios n/a Enable KFIOS module  
_asm_enable_kfks n/a Enable KFKS module  
_asm_enable_lostwrite_scrub n/a Allow lost write detection in scrubbing  
_asm_enable_multiple_asmb n/a Allow the ASM client to have multiple ASMB background processes  
_asm_enable_parity_datafile_creation n/a Enable parity datafiles creation  
_asm_enable_parity_scrub n/a Allow scrubbing parity files  
_asm_enable_parityfile_creation n/a Enable parity files creation  
_asm_enable_repair_lostwrite_scrub n/a Allow repairing lost write in scrubbing  
_asm_enable_xrov n/a Enable XROV capability  
_asm_evenread ASM Even Read level  
_asm_evenread_alpha ASM Even Read Alpha  
_asm_evenread_alpha2 ASM Even Read Second Alpha  
_asm_evenread_faststart ASM Even Read Fast Start Threshold  
_asm_fail_random_rx Randomly fail some RX enqueue gets  
_asm_fd_cln_idle_sess_twait Idle session time wait to run ASM FD cleanup  
_asm_fd_cln_on_fg ASM stale FD cleanup on foregrounds  
_asm_fob_tac_frequency Timeout frequency for FOB cleanup  
_asm_force_parity_extent_check n/a Force parity extent integrity check  
_asm_force_paritycheck_rebalance n/a Force parity extent integrity check during rebalance  
_asm_force_quiesce Force diskgroup quiescing  
_asm_force_vam n/a force VAM for external redundancy  
_asm_global_dump_level System state dump level for ASM asserts  
_asm_hbeatiowait number of secs to wait for PST Async Hbeat IO return  
_asm_hbeatwaitquantum quantum used to compute time-to-wait for a PST Hbeat check  
_asm_healthcheck_timeout n/a seconds until health check takes action  
_asm_idn_processes n/a number of global open processes  
_asm_imbalance_tolerance hundredths of a percentage of inter-disk imbalance to tolerate  
_asm_instlock_quota ASM Instance Lock Quota  
_asm_ios_network_domains n/a number of domains in ASM IOSERVER instance  
_asm_ios_network_processes n/a number network processes per domain in ASM IOSERVER instance  
_asm_iosconnect_timeout n/a Time (in 3secs multiples) before db gives up on connecting to IOS  
_asm_iostat_latch_count ASM I/O statistics latch count  
_asm_iowp_max_async n/a maximum async IOs per IO worker process  
_asm_kfdpevent KFDP event  
_asm_kfioevent n/a KFIO event  
_asm_kill_unresponsive_clients kill unresponsive ASM clients  
_asm_libraries library search order for discovery  
_asm_log_scale_rebalance Rebalance power uses logarithmic scale  
_asm_lsod_bucket_size ASM lsod bucket size  
_asm_max_aux_cods n/a maximum number of auxiliary cods in sparse disk groups  
_asm_max_clients n/a maximum number of clients this IOS instance can service  
_asm_max_cod_strides maximum number of COD strides  
_asm_max_connected_clients n/a The high water mark value for connected clients  
_asm_max_parallelios n/a Maximum simultaneous outstanding IOs  
_asm_max_redo_buffer_size asm maximum redo buffer size  
_asm_maxio Maximum size of individual I/O request  
_asm_min_compatibility n/a default mininum ASM compatibility level  
_asm_netp_factor n/a number of network processes per net  
_asm_netp_iosize n/a maximum io size  
_asm_network_timeout n/a Keepalive timeout for ASM network connections  
_asm_networks n/a ASM network subnet addresses  
_asm_node_site_guid n/a ASM site GUID of node  
_asm_nodekill_escalate_time n/a secs until escalating to nodekill if fence incomplete  
_asm_noevenread_diskgroups n/a List of disk groups having even read disabled  
_asm_oda_type n/a ODA Type  
_asm_odapremchk n/a Check premature storage for ODA  
_asm_offload_all n/a Offload all write operations to Exadata cells, when supported  
_asm_partner_target_disk_part target maximum number of disk partners for repartnering  
_asm_partner_target_fg_rel target maximum number of failure group relationships for repartnering  
_asm_primary_load Number of cycles/extents to load for non-mirrored files  
_asm_primary_load_cycles True if primary load is in cycles, false if extent counts  
_asm_procs_trace_diskerr n/a Number of processes allowed to trace a disk failure  
_asm_proxy_online_restart n/a Allow patching while ADVM volumes are online  
_asm_proxy_startwait n/a Maximum time to wait for ASM proxy connection  
_asm_pstonpartners n/a Select ideal PST disks following partnership  
_asm_random_zone Random zones for new files  
_asm_read_cancel n/a Read cancel timeout in milliseconds  
_asm_read_cancel_back_out n/a Time period in milliseconds when no reads are issued to a disk after a read is cancelled  
_asm_rebalance_estimates_process n/a Perform rebalance estimates in ARB-A process  
_asm_rebalance_plan_size maximum rebalance work unit  
_asm_rebalance_space_errors number of out of space errors allowed before aborting rebalance  
_asm_reloc_cic n/a Allow relocation during rolling migration  
_asm_relocation_async_lock_count n/a limit of asynchronous map locks during relocation  
_asm_relocation_ignore_hard_failure n/a ignore HARD for relocation  
_asm_relocation_scheme n/a ASM allocation / relocation scheme  
_asm_relocation_trace n/a enable extent relocation tracing  
_asm_remote_client_timeout n/a timeout before killing disconnected remote clients  
_asm_repairquantum quantum (in 3s) used to compute elapsed time for disk drop  
_asm_reserve_slaves reserve ASM slaves for CF txns  
_asm_resyncCkpt n/a number of extents to resync before flushing checkpoint  
_asm_root_directory ASM default root directory  
_asm_runtime_capability_volume_support runtime capability for volume support returns supported  
_asm_scrub_async n/a Enable asynchronous scrubbing  
_asm_scrub_disable_cod n/a Disable scrubbing COD  
_asm_scrub_limit n/a ASM disk scrubbing power  
_asm_scrub_strict n/a Enable strict scrubbing mode  
_asm_scrub_unmatched_dba n/a Scrub maximum number of blocks with unmatched DBA  
_asm_secondary_load Number of cycles/extents to load for mirrored files  
_asm_secondary_load_cycles True if secondary load is in cycles, false if extent counts  
_asm_serialize_volume_rebalance Serialize volume rebalance  
_asm_shadow_cycle Inverse shadow cycle requirement  
_asm_skip_dbfile_ios n/a Skip I/Os to database files (do only ASM metadata I/O)  
_asm_skip_diskval_check n/a skip client side discovery for disk revalidate  
_asm_skip_rename_check skip the checking of the clients for s/w compatibility for rename  
_asm_skip_resize_check skip the checking of the clients for s/w compatibility for resize  
_asm_storagemaysplit PST Split Possible  
_asm_stripesize ASM file stripe size  
_asm_stripewidth ASM file stripe width  
_asm_sync_rebalance Rebalance uses sync I/O  
_asm_tcp_user_timeout n/a TCP_USER_TIMEOUT in minutes  
_asm_trace_limit_timeout n/a Time-out in milliseconds to reset the number of traces per disk and the number of processes allowed to trace  
_asm_ufg_nw_wait_timeout n/a seconds to start health check on unresponsive clients  
_asm_usd_batch ASM USD Update Max Batch Size  
_asm_wait_time Max/imum time to wait before asmb exits  
_asm_write_badfdata_in_contentcheck n/a Write BADFDA7A in content check  
_asm_write_cancel n/a Write timeout in milliseconds  
_asm_xrov_nstats n/a Specify number of IOs before stats  
_asm_xrov_nvios n/a Specify number of VIO processes  
_asm_xrov_rsnmod n/a Specify 'reason' mode  
_asm_xrov_single n/a Enable single issues of IOs  
_asm_zero_power_limit n/a allow setting zero power limit  
_asmlib_test n/a Osmlib test event  
_asmsid ASM instance id  
_assert_encrypted_tablespace_blocks n/a if TRUE, assert encrypted tablespace blocks must be encrypted  
_assm_default ASSM default  
_assm_examination_blocks_threshold n/a ASSM get space number of fuzzy blocks to examine  
_assm_examination_enable_sla n/a ASSM get space enable examination limits  
_assm_examination_time_threshold n/a ASSM get space examination time threshold in seconds  
_assm_force_fetchmeta enable metadata block fetching in ASSM segment scan  
_assm_high_gsp_threshold Number of blocks rejected before growing segment  
_assm_l1cleanout_throttle_time n/a L1 bitmap block cleanout throttle time in seconds  
_assm_latency_sampling_frequency n/a ASSM Latency sampling frequency in seconds  
_assm_low_gsp_threshold Number of blocks rejected before collecting stats  
_assm_segment_extension_percent n/a Percent of full blocks after which segment is extended  
_assm_segment_repair_bg n/a ASSM Segment repair: bg enable  
_assm_segment_repair_fg n/a ASSM Segment repair: fg  
_assm_segment_repair_maxblks n/a ASSM Segment repair: Max blocks per slave  
_assm_segment_repair_timelimit n/a ASSM Segment repair: Max time in seconds per slave  
_assm_space_cache_hb_expire n/a Seconds after which higher order bitmaps expire from space cache  
_assm_space_cache_max_segments n/a ASSM Maximum Segments to Track  
_assm_test_force_rej n/a assm min number of blocks to cbk-reject  
_assm_test_force_rej2 n/a assm min number of blocks to kdt-reject  
_assm_test_reentrant_gsp n/a assm test reentrant gsp  
_async_recovery_claims if TRUE, issue recovery claims asynchronously  
_async_recovery_reads if TRUE, issue recovery reads asynchronously  
_async_rta_broadcast asynchronously broadcast RTA boundary  
_async_scn_sync n/a Asynchronous SCN Sync Setting  
_async_ts_threshold check tablespace thresholds asynchronously  
_atp_block_size_default n/a ATP setting block size to 8K  
_auto_assign_cg_for_sessions auto assign CGs for sessions  
_auto_bmr enable/disable Auto BMR  
_auto_bmr_bg_time Auto BMR Process Run Time  
_auto_bmr_fc_time Auto BMR Flood Control Time  
_auto_bmr_file_header n/a Enable Auto BMR for file header fix  
_auto_bmr_max_rowno x$krbabrstat Max number of rows  
_auto_bmr_noretry_window n/a Auto BMR NoRetry Window  
_auto_bmr_pub_timeout Auto BMR Publish Timeout  
_auto_bmr_req_timeout Auto BMR Requester Timeout  
_auto_bmr_sess_threshold Auto BMR Request Session Threshold  
_auto_bmr_sys_threshold Auto BMR Request System Threshold  
_auto_dismount_on_pdb_close n/a Enable implicit PDB dismount on PDB close  
_auto_export_preplugin_backup n/a auto export pre-plugin backup  
_auto_manage_enable_offline_check perodically check for OFFLINE disks and attempt to ONLINE  
_auto_manage_enable_smart_rebalance n/a OFFLINE instead of DROP disk(s) when free space is not enough for rebalance  
_auto_manage_exadata_disks Automate Exadata disk management  
_auto_manage_infreq_tout TEST: Set infrequent timeout action to run at this interval, unit is seconds  
_auto_manage_ioctl_bufsz oss_ioctl buffer size, to read and respond to cell notifications  
_auto_manage_max_online_tries Max. attempts to auto ONLINE an ASM disk  
_auto_manage_num_pipe_msgs Max. number of out-standing msgs in the KXDAM pipe  
_auto_manage_num_tries Num. tries before giving up on a automation operation  
_auto_manage_online_tries_expire_time Allow Max. attempts to auto ONLINE an ASM disk after lapsing this time (unit in seconds)  
_auto_manage_smart_rebalance_grace_period_in_min n/a Number of minutes waited after ASM diskgroup free space increases and becomes sufficient for rebalance before dropping an ASM disk offlined due to insufficient free space  
_auto_manage_smart_rebalance_space_threshold n/a Percentage of ASM diskgroup free space required for rebalance  
_auto_rcv_pdb_open n/a enable automatic recovery during pdb open  
_auto_rekey_during_mrcv n/a enable automatic rekey during media recovery  
_auto_start_pdb_services n/a Automatically start all PDB services on PDB Open  
_automatic_maintenance_test Enable AUTOTASK Test Mode  
_automemory_broker_interval memory broker statistics gathering interval for auto memory  
_autotask_max_window Maximum Logical Maintenance Window Length in minutes  
_autotask_min_window Minimum Maintenance Window Length in minutes  
_autotask_test_action n/a test action parameter for AUTOTASK  
_autotask_test_name n/a Name of current Autotask Test (or test step)  
_autotbs_management_enabled n/a allow automatic tablespace management  
_autotune_gtx_idle_time idle time to trigger auto-shutdown a gtx background process  
_autotune_gtx_interval interval to autotune global transaction background processes  
_autotune_gtx_threshold auto-tune threshold for degree of global transaction concurrency  
_aux_dfc_keep_time n/a auxiliary datafile copy keep time in minutes  
_available_core_count number of cores for this instance  
_avoid_prepare n/a if TRUE, do not prepare a buffer when the master is local  
_avoid_scn_growth n/a enable scn growth optimizations  
_awr_cdbperf_threshold n/a Setting for AWR CDBPERF Threshold  
_awr_corrupt_mode AWR Corrupt Mode  
_awr_disabled_flush_tables Disable flushing of specified AWR tables  
_awr_disabled_purge_tables n/a Disable purging of specified AWR tables  
_awr_enable_pdb_snapshots n/a Enable/Disable AWR PDB level snapshots  
_awr_flush_threshold_metrics Enable/Disable Flushing AWR Threshold Metrics  
_awr_flush_workload_metrics Enable/Disable Flushing AWR Workload Metrics  
_awr_incremental_flush_enabled n/a Enable/Disable AWR automatic incremental flushing  
_awr_metrics_use_mmnl n/a Use MMNL or other background process for AWR metrics  
_awr_mmon_cpuusage Enable/disable AWR MMON CPU Usage Tracking  
_awr_mmon_deep_purge_all_expired Allows deep purge to purge AWR data for all expired snapshots  
_awr_mmon_deep_purge_extent Set extent of rows to check each deep purge run  
_awr_mmon_deep_purge_interval Set interval for deep purge of AWR contents  
_awr_mmon_deep_purge_numrows Set max number of rows per table to delete each deep purge run  
_awr_partition_interval n/a Setting for AWR Partition Interval  
_awr_pdb_registration_enabled n/a Parameter to enable/disable AWR PDB Registration  
_awr_restrict_mode AWR Restrict Mode  
_awr_snapshot_level n/a Set Default AWR snapshot level  
_awr_sql_child_limit Setting for AWR SQL Child Limit  
_awr_warehouse_enabled n/a Enable/Disable AWR warehouse functionality  
_b_tree_bitmap_plans enable the use of bitmap plans for tables w. only B-tree indexes  
_ba_cf_trace_buffer_size n/a size of per-process I/O KBC trace buffer  
_ba_container_filesystem_ausize n/a allocation unit size for Backup Appliance containers  
_ba_max_containers n/a maximum number of Backup Appliance containers  
_ba_max_groups n/a maximum number of Backup Appliance container groups  
_ba_max_seg_bytes n/a maximum number of bytes per array segment  
_ba_timeouts_enabled n/a enable timeouts  
_background_process_opts n/a Misc BG procs parameter  
_backup_align_write_io align backup write I/Os  
_backup_appliance_enabled n/a Backup Appliance Enabled  
_backup_automatic_retry automatic retry on backup write errors  
_backup_block0 n/a backup block0  
_backup_bool_spare1 backup bool spare1  
_backup_bool_spare2 backup bool spare2  
_backup_bool_spare3 backup bool spare3  
_backup_bool_spare4 backup bool spare4  
_backup_compress n/a turn on backup compression always  
_backup_disk_bufcnt number of buffers used for DISK channels  
_backup_disk_bufsz size of buffers used for DISK channels  
_backup_disk_io_slaves BACKUP Disk I/O slaves  
_backup_dynamic_buffers dynamically compute backup/restore buffer sizes  
_backup_encrypt_opt_mode specifies encryption block optimization mode  
_backup_file_bufcnt number of buffers used for file access  
_backup_file_bufsz size of buffers used for file access  
_backup_int_spare1 backup int spare1  
_backup_int_spare2 backup int spare2  
_backup_int_spare3 backup int spare3  
_backup_int_spare4 backup int spare4  
_backup_io_pool_size memory to reserve from the large pool  
_backup_kgc_blksiz n/a specifies buffer size to be used by HIGH compression  
_backup_kgc_bufsz n/a specifies buffer size to be used by BASIC compression  
_backup_kgc_bz2_bufsz n/a specifies buffer size to be used by BZ2 compression  
_backup_kgc_bz2_niters n/a specifies number of iterations done by BZ2 compression  
_backup_kgc_bz2_type n/a specifies type used by BZ2 compression  
_backup_kgc_bzip2_blksiz n/a specifies buffer size to be used by BZIP2 compression  
_backup_kgc_lzo_bufsz n/a specifies buffer size to be used by LZO compression  
_backup_kgc_medium_scheme n/a specifies medium compression scheme  
_backup_kgc_memlevel n/a specifies memory level for MEDIUM compression  
_backup_kgc_niters n/a specifies number of iterations done by BASIC compression  
_backup_kgc_perflevel n/a specifies compression (performance) level for MEDIUM compression  
_backup_kgc_scheme specifies compression scheme  
_backup_kgc_type n/a specifies compression type used by kgc BASIC compression  
_backup_kgc_windowbits n/a specifies window size for MEDIUM compression  
_backup_kgc_zlib_complevel n/a specifies compression (performance) level for ZLIB compression  
_backup_kgc_zlib_memlevel n/a specifies memory level for ZLIB compression  
_backup_kgc_zlib_windowbits n/a specifies window size for ZLIB compression  
_backup_kgc_zstd_bufsz n/a specifies buffer size to be used by ZSTD compression  
_backup_kgc_zstd_complevel n/a specifies compression (performance) level for ZSTD compression  
_backup_ksfq_bufcnt number of buffers used for backup/restore  
_backup_ksfq_bufcnt_max n/a maximum number of buffers used for backup/restore  
_backup_ksfq_bufmem_max n/a maximum amount of memory (in bytes) used for buffers for backup/restore  
_backup_ksfq_bufsz size of buffers used for backup/restore  
_backup_lzo_size n/a specifies buffer size for LOW compression  
_backup_max_gap_size largest gap in an incremental/optimized backup buffer, in bytes  
_backup_max_wallet_session n/a specifies maximum wallet session for backup  
_backup_min_ct_unused_optim n/a mimimun size in bytes of change tracking to apply unused space optimuzation  
_backup_seq_bufcnt number of buffers used for non-DISK channels  
_backup_seq_bufsz size of buffers used for non-DISK channels  
_backup_text_spare1 backup text spare1  
_backup_text_spare2 backup text spare2  
_backup_text_spare3 backup text spare3  
_backup_text_spare4 backup text spare4  
_bct_bitmaps_per_file number of bitmaps to store for each datafile  
_bct_buffer_allocation_max maximum size of all change tracking buffer allocations, in bytes  
_bct_buffer_allocation_min_extents mininum number of extents to allocate per buffer allocation  
_bct_buffer_allocation_size size of one change tracking buffer allocation, in bytes  
_bct_chunk_size change tracking datafile chunk size, in bytes  
_bct_crash_reserve_size change tracking reserved crash recovery SGA space, in bytes  
_bct_file_block_size block size of change tracking file, in bytes  
_bct_file_extent_size extent size of change tracking file, in bytes  
_bct_fixtab_file change tracking file for fixed tables  
_bct_health_check_interval CTWR health check interval (seconds), zero to disable  
_bct_initial_private_dba_buffer_size initial number of entries in the private change tracking dba buffers  
_bct_mrp_timeout CTWR MRP wait timeout (seconds), zero to wait forever  
_bct_public_dba_buffer_dynresize n/a allow dynamic resizing of public dba buffers, zero to disable  
_bct_public_dba_buffer_maxsize n/a max buffer size permitted for public dba buffers, in bytes  
_bct_public_dba_buffer_size total size of all public change tracking dba buffers, in bytes  
_bequeath_via_broker n/a Bequeath connections via broker  
_bg_spawn_diag_opts n/a background processes spawn diagnostic options  
_big_scn_test_mode n/a testing mode for BigSCN  
_bigdata_external_table n/a enables use of ORACLE_HIVE and ORACLE_HDFS access drivers  
_bigram_dependency_percentage n/a Bigram dependency percentage  
_bitmap_or_improvement_enabled controls extensions to partition pruning for general predicates  
_block_dump_assert n/a Encrypted block dump assert  
_block_level_offload_high_lat_thresh n/a High Latency Threshold for Block Level Offload operations  
_block_sample_readahead_prob_threshold controls readahead value during block sampling  
_blockhm_flush_period n/a Block heat map background flush period  
_blocking_sess_graph_cache_size blocking session graph cache size in bytes  
_blocks_per_cache_server number of consecutive blocks per global cache server  
_bloom_extent_size n/a bloom filter extent size in bytes  
_bloom_filter_debug debug level for bloom filtering  
_bloom_filter_enabled enables or disables bloom filter  
_bloom_filter_ratio n/a bloom filter filtering ratio  
_bloom_filter_setops_enabled n/a Allow bloom filter to be pushed through set operations  
_bloom_filter_size n/a bloom filter vector size (in KB)  
_bloom_folding_density bloom filter folding density lower bound  
_bloom_folding_enabled Enable folding of bloom filter  
_bloom_folding_min bloom filter folding size lower bound bloom filter folding size lower bound (in KB)
_bloom_max_size bloom filter maximum size in bytes maximum bloom filter size (in KB)
_bloom_max_wait_time n/a bloom filter wait time upper bound (in ms)  
_bloom_minmax_enabled enable or disable bloom min max filtering  
_bloom_predicate_enabled enables or disables bloom filter predicate pushdown  
_bloom_predicate_offload n/a enables or disables bloom filter predicate offload to cells  
_bloom_predicate_pushdown_to_storage n/a enables or disables bloom filter predicate pushdown to storage  
_bloom_pruning_enabled Enable partition pruning using bloom filtering  
_bloom_pruning_setops_enabled n/a Allow bloom pruning to be pushed through set operations  
_bloom_pushing_max bloom filter pushing size upper bound bloom filter pushing size upper bound (in KB)
_bloom_pushing_total_max bloom filter combined pushing size (DOP x filter size) upper bound bloom filter combined pushing size upper bound (in KB)
_bloom_rm_filter n/a remove bloom predicate in favor of zonemap join pruning predicate  
_bloom_serial_filter enable serial bloom filter on exadata  
_bloom_sm_enabled enable bloom filter optimization using slave mapping  
_bloom_use_shared_pool n/a use shared pool for bloom filter  
_bloom_vector_elements n/a number of elements in a bloom filter vector  
_bloom_wait_on_rac n/a enables bloom filter (with hash hash distribution) wait on RAC  
_bmr_prefered_standby n/a standby db_unique_name prefered for standby BMR  
_bps_sanity_checks n/a enable BPS sanity checks  
_branch_tagging enable branch tagging for distributed transaction  
_broadcast_scn_mode n/a broadcast-on-commit scn mode  
_broadcast_scn_wait_timeout broadcast-on-commit scn wait timeout in centiseconds  
_bsln_adaptive_thresholds_enabled Adaptive Thresholds Enabled  
_bt_mmv_query_rewrite_enabled allow rewrites with multiple MVs and base tables  
_buddy_instance n/a buddy instance control  
_buddy_instance_num_read_buffers n/a Num of Read Buffers to scan everytime in Buddy Instance feature  
_buddy_instance_scan_phase_threshold n/a Threshold (in secs) to let RMS0 construct the recovery set  
_buddy_instance_start_rba_timeout n/a Time-out for re-computing Start RBA in Buddy Instance feature  
_buffer_busy_wait_timeout buffer busy wait time in centiseconds  
_buffered_message_spill_age Buffered message spill age  
_buffered_publisher_flow_control_threshold Flow control threshold for buffered publishers except capture  
_bufq_stop_flow_control Stop enforcing flow control for buffered queues  
_bug29274428_modsvc_call_out_enabled n/a one-hundred-and-forty-third spare parameter - boolean  
_build_deferred_mv_skipping_mvlog_update DEFERRED MV creation skipping MV log setup update  
_bump_highwater_mark_count how many blocks should we allocate per free list on advancing HWM  
_bwr_for_flushed_pi if TRUE, generate a BWR for a flushed PI  
_bypass_srl_for_so_eor bypass SRL for S/O EOR logs  
_bypass_xplatform_error bypass datafile header cross-platform-compliance errors  
_c3_external_scn_rejection_threshold_hours n/a Lag in hours between max allowed SCN and an external SCN  
_cache_fusion_pipelined_updates n/a Block ping without wait for log force  
_cache_orl_during_open n/a cache online logs  
_cache_stats_monitor if TRUE, enable cache stats monitoring  
_capability_simulate n/a Simulate the capabilities for testing  
_capture_buffer_size To set the size of the PGA I/O recording buffers  
_capture_pgadep n/a capture statements at this pgadep  
_capture_publisher_flow_control_threshold Flow control threshold for capture publishers  
_case_sensitive_logon case sensitive logon enabled  
_catalog_foreign_restore n/a catalog foreign file restore  
_causal_standby_wait_timeout Causal standby wait timeout  
_cdb_compatible n/a CDB Compatible  
_cdb_cross_container n/a Debug flag for cross container operations  
_cdb_disable_pdb_limit n/a CDB Compatible  
_cdb_fleet_sync_timeout n/a Time in minutes to wait for sync of stub entry in CDB Fleet  
_cdb_port n/a Port number for CDB  
_cdb_rac_affinity n/a rac affinity for parallel cdb operations  
_cdb_special_old_xplan n/a display old-style plan for CDB special fixed table  
_cdb_spfile_inherit n/a Inherit CDB Spfile enabled/disabled in a PDB  
_cdb_view_no_skip_migrate n/a do not skip OPEN MIGRATE PDBs from results of CONTAINERS()  
_cdb_view_no_skip_restricted n/a do not skip RESTRICTED mode PDBs from results of CONTAINERS()  
_cdb_view_parallel_degree n/a Parallel degree for a CDB view query  
_cdb_view_prefetch_batch_size n/a Batch Size for Prefetch for a CDB view query  
_cdb_view_rc_shelflife n/a Result Cache Shelflife for a CDB view query  
_cdb_view_recursive_px_enabled n/a enable parallelism of recursive SQL under CONTAINERS()  
_cdc_subscription_owner Change Data Capture subscription_owner  
_cdmp_diagnostic_level cdmp directory diagnostic level  
_cell_fast_file_create Allow optimized file creation path for Cells  
_cell_fast_file_restore Allow optimized rman restore for Cells  
_cell_file_format_chunk_size Cell file format chunk size in MB  
_cell_index_scan_enabled enable CELL processing of index FFS  
_cell_materialize_all_expressions n/a Force materialization of all offloadable expressions on the cells  
_cell_materialize_virtual_columns n/a enable offload of expressions underlying virtual columns to cells  
_cell_object_expiration_hours flashcache object expiration timeout  
_cell_offload_backup_compression n/a enable offload of backup compression to cells  
_cell_offload_capabilities_enabled specifies capability table to load  
_cell_offload_complex_processing n/a enable complex SQL processing offload to cells  
_cell_offload_expressions n/a enable offload of expressions to cells  
_cell_offload_grand_total n/a allow offload of grand total aggregations  
_cell_offload_hybrid_processing n/a enable hybrid SQL processing offload to cells  
_cell_offload_hybridcolumnar Query offloading of hybrid columnar compressed tables to exadata  
_cell_offload_predicate_reordering_enabled enable out-of-order SQL processing offload to cells  
_cell_offload_sys_context n/a enable offload of SYS_CONTEXT evaluation to cells  
_cell_offload_timezone enable timezone related SQL processing offload to cells  
_cell_offload_vector_groupby n/a enable SQL processing offload of vector group by  
_cell_offload_vector_groupby_fact_key n/a enable cell offload of vector group by with fact grouping keys  
_cell_offload_vector_groupby_force n/a force offload of vector group by  
_cell_offload_vector_groupby_withnojoin n/a allow offload of vector group by without joins  
_cell_offload_virtual_columns enable offload of predicates on virtual columns to cells  
_cell_range_scan_enabled enable CELL processing of index range scans  
_cell_storidx_minmax_enabled n/a enable Storage Index Min/Max optimization on the cells  
_cell_storidx_mode Cell Storage Index mode  
_cellcache_clause_default n/a Default cellcache clause for new tables  
_cellcache_default_flags n/a Default flags based on cellcache_clause_default  
_cellcache_default_new n/a Force cellcache on new tables  
_cgs_allgroup_poll_time CGS DBALL group polling interval in milli-seconds  
_cgs_big_group_enabled n/a big group membership support  
_cgs_combine_css_events n/a CGS registration flags for CSS event combining  
_cgs_comm_readiness_check n/a CGS communication readiness check  
_cgs_dball_group_registration CGS DBALL group registration type  
_cgs_dbgroup_poll_time CGS DB group polling interval in milli-seconds  
_cgs_health_check_in_reconfig CGS health check during reconfiguration  
_cgs_memberkill_from_rim_instance n/a allow a RIM instance to issue a CSS member kill  
_cgs_msg_batch_size n/a CGS message batch size in bytes  
_cgs_msg_batching n/a CGS message batching  
_cgs_node_kill_escalation CGS node kill escalation to CSS  
_cgs_node_kill_escalation_wait CGS wait time to escalate node kill to CSS in seconds  
_cgs_os_level_connection_check n/a allow OS level connection and interface check  
_cgs_os_level_connection_dynamicthread n/a allow oraping to spawn more threads than the default.  
_cgs_os_level_connection_reqno n/a number of ping rqst to process at once, threads created  
_cgs_publish_netinfo_collect_event_chm n/a enable cgs publish collect_netinfo event to event stream for CHM  
_cgs_publish_netinfo_collect_event_haip n/a enable cgs publish collect_netinfo event to event stream for HAIP  
_cgs_reconfig_extra_wait CGS reconfiguration extra wait time for CSS in seconds  
_cgs_reconfig_timeout CGS reconfiguration timeout interval  
_cgs_send_timeout CGS send timeout value  
_cgs_support_rim_disc n/a rim instance disconnect and reconnect event support  
_cgs_ticket_sendback n/a CGS ticket active sendback percentage threshold  
_cgs_tickets CGS messaging tickets  
_cgs_zombie_member_kill_wait CGS zombie member kill wait time in seconds  
_change_vector_buffers Number of change vector buffers for media recovery  
_change_vector_read_sample_ratio n/a Sample ratio of change vector read timestamp on ADG  
_check_block_after_checksum perform block check after checksum if both are turned on  
_check_block_new_invariant_for_flashback check block new invariant for flashback  
_check_column_length check column length  
_check_pdbid_in_redo n/a Enable checking of pluggable database ID in redo  
_check_ts_threshold check tablespace thresholds  
_child_read_ahead_dba_check n/a if TRUE, assert child read ahead dba to be continuous of parent  
_cleanout_shrcur_buffers n/a if TRUE, cleanout shrcur buffers  
_cleanup_rollback_entries no. of undo entries to apply per transaction cleanup  
_cleanup_timeout timeout value for PMON cleanup  
_cleanup_timeout_flags flags for PMON cleanup timeout  
_clear_buffer_before_reuse Always zero-out buffer before reuse for security  
_clear_preserved_buffers n/a Clear preserved buffers before DB reopen after switchover  
_cli_cachebktalloc n/a Percentage of memory to allocate  
_client_enable_auto_unregister enable automatic unregister after a send fails with timeout  
_client_features_tracking_enable n/a track client feature uage  
_client_ntfn_cleanup_interval interval after which dead client registration cleanup task repeats  
_client_ntfn_pinginterval time between pings to unreachable notification clients  
_client_ntfn_pingretries number of times to ping unreachable notification clients  
_client_ntfn_pingtimeout timeout to connect to unreachable notification clients  
_client_result_cache_bypass bypass the client result cache  
_client_result_cache_ramthreshold n/a client_result_cache_ramthreshold  
_client_result_set_threshold n/a client_result_set_threshold  
_client_tstz_error_check Should Client give error for suspect Timestamp with Timezone operations  
_clone_during_split n/a if TRUE, clone buffer during index split  
_clone_one_pdb_recovery n/a Recover ROOT and only one PDB in clone database  
_close_cached_open_cursors close cursors cached by PL/SQL at each commit  
_close_deq_by_cond_curs Close Dequeue By Condition Cursors  
_cloud_name n/a gsm cloud name  
_cloud_service_sim n/a simulate cloud services in Database  
_cloud_service_type n/a cloud service type  
_cluster_flash_cache_slave_file n/a cluster flash cache slave file for default block size  
_cluster_flash_cache_slave_size n/a cluster flash cache slave file size for default block size  
_cluster_instances_number n/a number of instances to calculate number of resource buckets  
_cluster_library cluster library selection  
_clusterwide_global_transactions enable/disable clusterwide global transactions  
_collapse_wait_history collapse wait history  
_collect_tempundo_stats n/a Collect Statistics v$tempundostat  
_collect_undo_stats Collect Statistics v$undostat  
_column_compression_factor Column compression ratio  
_column_elimination_off turn off predicate-only column elimination  
_column_level_stats n/a Turn column statistics collection on or off  
_column_stats_flush_interval n/a column-level statistics flush to disk interval  
_column_stats_max_entries_per_stat n/a column-level statistics max entries saved per stat type  
_column_stats_mem_limit n/a percentage of the max shared pool column-level statistics can use - internal  
_column_tracking_level column usage tracking  
_common_data_view_enabled n/a common objects returned through dictionary views  
_common_user_prefix n/a Enforce restriction on a prefix of a Common User/Role/Profile name  
_compilation_call_heap_extent_size Size of the compilation call heaps extents  
_complex_view_merging enable complex view merging  
_component_timing n/a Oracle parameter used for component tracking and timing  
_composite_interval_partition_creation_opt_enabled n/a when creating interval/auto list partitions, defer subpartition segment creation until a row for the subpartition is inserted  
_compression_above_cache number of recompression above cache for sanity check  
_compression_advisor Compression advisor  
_compression_chain percentage of chained rows allowed for Compression  
_compression_compatibility Compression compatability Compression compatibility
_con_map_sql_enforcement n/a disable container map SQL enforcement  
_concurrency_chosen n/a what is the chosen value of concurrency  
_connect_by_use_union_all use union all for connect by  
_connect_string_params_after_logon_triggers n/a set connect string session parameters after logon triggers  
_connect_string_params_unalterable n/a make connect string session parameters unalterable  
_connection_broker_handout_accept n/a connection broker accepts prior to handout  
_connection_broker_host connection broker host for listen address  
_containers_multiple_ptn_key n/a enable multiple partition keys for container views  
_controlfile_auto_convert_behaviour n/a controlfile auto convert behavior for a mixed platform dataguard.  
_controlfile_autobackup_delay time delay (in seconds) for performing controlfile autobackups  
_controlfile_backup_copy_check enable check of the copied blocks during controlfile backup copy  
_controlfile_block_size control file block size in bytes  
_controlfile_cell_flash_caching Flash cache hint for control file accesses  
_controlfile_enqueue_dump dump the system states after controlfile enqueue timeout  
_controlfile_enqueue_holding_time control file enqueue max holding time in seconds  
_controlfile_enqueue_holding_time_tracking_size control file enqueue holding time tracking size  
_controlfile_enqueue_timeout control file enqueue timeout in seconds  
_controlfile_section_init_size control file initial section size  
_controlfile_section_max_expand control file max expansion rate  
_controlfile_split_brain_check n/a Check for a split-brain in distributed lock manager domain  
_controlfile_update_check controlfile update sanity check  
_controlfile_verify_on_mount n/a Verify control file blocks on header error during mount  
_convert_set_to_join enables conversion of set operator to join  
_coord_message_buffer parallel recovery coordinator side extra message buffer size  
_corrupted_rollback_segments corrupted undo segment list  
_cost_equality_semi_join enables costing of equality semi-join  
_cp_num_hash_latches connection pool number of hash latches  
_cpu_count_startup n/a Startup number of CPUs for this instance  
_cpu_eff_thread_multiplier CPU effective thread multiplier  
_cpu_to_io divisor for converting CPU cost to I/O cost  
_cpu_util_adj_force n/a force cpu util adjustment  
_cpu_util_adj_target n/a cpu utilization adjustment target  
_cr_grant_global_role if TRUE, grant lock for CR requests when block is in global role  
_cr_grant_local_role turn 3-way CR grants off, make it automatic, or turn it on  
_cr_grant_only if TRUE, grant locks when possible and do not send the block  
_cr_multiblock_grant_only n/a if TRUE, grant locks for multiblock read when possible and do not send the block  
_cr_server_log_flush if TRUE, flush redo log before serving a CR buffer  
_cr_trc_buf_size size of cr trace buffer  
_crash_domain_on_exception n/a allow domain to exit for exceptions in any thread  
_create_idx_from_constraint n/a allow trigger to create index from constraint  
_create_stat_segment n/a create ilm statistics segment  
_create_table_in_any_cluster allow creation of table in a cluster not owned by the user  
_cross_con_collection n/a enable cross container collection  
_cross_con_row_count n/a use actual row count for cross container views  
_crs_2phase n/a crs 2phase  
_cstats_enabled n/a Core stat monitoring enabled  
_ctx_doc_policy_stems n/a enable ctx_doc.policy_stems api  
_cu_row_locking n/a CU row level locking  
_cursor_bind_capture_area_size maximum size of the cursor bind capture area  
_cursor_bind_capture_interval interval (in seconds) between two bind capture for a cursor  
_cursor_cache_time number of seconds a session cached cursor stay in cache.  
_cursor_db_buffers_pinned additional number of buffers a cursor can pin at once  
_cursor_diagnostic_node_agedout_count Number of cursor-sharing diagnostic nodes to retain before reuse  
_cursor_features_enabled Shared cursor features enabled bits.  
_cursor_obsolete_threshold Number of cursors per parent before obsoletion.  
_cursor_plan_enabled enable collection and display of cursor plans  
_cursor_plan_hash_version version of cursor plan hash value  
_cursor_plan_unparse_enabled enables/disables using unparse to build projection/predicates  
_cursor_reload_failure_threshold n/a Number of failed reloads before marking cursor unusable  
_cursor_runtimeheap_memlimit Shared cursor runtime heap memory limit  
_cursor_stats_enabled Enable cursor stats  
_cvw_enable_weak_checking enable weak view checking  
_cvw_examine_tables_in_from_list_subqry n/a examine tables in from list subqueries  
_data_transfer_cache_bc_perc_x100 n/a Percentange * 100 of buffer cache to transfer to data transfer cache  
_data_warehousing_scan_buffers n/a if TRUE, enable data warehousing scan buffers  
_data_warehousing_scan_flash_buffers n/a if TRUE, enable data warehousing scan flash buffers  
_data_warehousing_serial_scan n/a if TRUE, enable data warehousing serial scans  
_datafile_cow Use copy on write snapshot for the renamed file  
_datafile_create_min_wait_time n/a Minimum wait time for standby during data file creation  
_datafile_create_wait_time n/a Wait time for standby during data file creation  
_datafile_open_errors_crash_instance n/a datafile open errors crash instance  
_datafile_write_errors_crash_instance datafile write errors crash instance  
_datapump_compressbas_buffer_size n/a specifies buffer size for BASIC compression algorithm  
_datapump_conv_pga_lim n/a pga limit for Data Pump conventional path bind array size  
_datapump_gather_stats_on_load n/a Gather table statistics during Data Pump load rather thanimporting statistics from the dump file. This should be set to TRUE in the lockdown profile in a DWCS environment.  
_datapump_inherit_svcname n/a Inherit and propagate service name throughout job  
_datapump_metadata_buffer_size n/a specifies buffer size for metadata file I/O  
_datapump_tabledata_buffer_size n/a specifies buffer size for table data file I/O  
_db_16k_cache_xmem_size n/a Size of 16k buffer pool on extended cache  
_db_16k_flash_cache_file flash cache file for 16k block size  
_db_16k_flash_cache_size flash cache size for _db_16k_flash_cache_file  
_db_2k_cache_xmem_size n/a Size of 2k buffer pool on extended memory  
_db_2k_flash_cache_file flash cache file for 2k block size  
_db_2k_flash_cache_size flash cache size for _db_2k_flash_cache_file  
_db_32k_cache_xmem_size n/a Size of 32k buffer pool on extended memory  
_db_32k_flash_cache_file flash cache file for 32k block size  
_db_32k_flash_cache_size flash cache size for _db_32k_flash_cache_file  
_db_4k_cache_xmem_size n/a Size of 4k buffer pool on extended cache  
_db_4k_flash_cache_file flash cache file for 4k block size  
_db_4k_flash_cache_size flash cache size for _db_4k_flash_cache_file  
_db_8k_cache_xmem_size n/a Size of 8k buffer pool on extended cache  
_db_8k_flash_cache_file flash cache file for 8k block size  
_db_8k_flash_cache_size flash cache size for _db_8k_flash_cache_file  
_db_aging_cool_count Touch count set when buffer cooled  
_db_aging_freeze_cr Make CR buffers always be too cold to keep in cache  
_db_aging_hot_criteria Touch count which sends a buffer to head of replacement list  
_db_aging_stay_count Touch count set when buffer moved to head of replacement list  
_db_aging_touch_time Touch count which sends a buffer to head of replacement list  
_db_always_check_system_ts Always perform block check and checksum for System tablespace  
_db_block_adjcheck adjacent cache buffer checks - low blkchk overwrite parameter  
_db_block_adjchk_level adjacent cache buffer check level  
_db_block_align_direct_read Align Direct Reads  
_db_block_bad_write_check enable bad write checks  
_db_block_buffers Number of database blocks cached in memory: hidden parameter  
_db_block_cache_clone n/a Always clone data blocks on get (for debugging)  
_db_block_cache_history n/a buffer header tracing (non-zero only when debugging)  
_db_block_cache_history_level n/a buffer header tracing level  
_db_block_cache_history_lru buffer header tracing for lru operations  
_db_block_cache_num_umap n/a number of unmapped buffers (for tracking swap calls on blocks)  
_db_block_cache_protect protect database blocks (true only when debugging) protect database blocks (for debugging only)
_db_block_cache_protect_internal protect database blocks (for strictly internal use only) protect database blocks (for internal use only)
_db_block_check_for_debug Check more and dump block before image for debugging  
_db_block_check_objtyp check objd and typ on cache disk read  
_db_block_chunkify_ncmbr chunkify noncontig multi block reads  
_db_block_corruption_recovery_threshold threshold number of block recovery attempts  
_db_block_do_full_mbreads do full block read even if some blocks are in cache  
_db_block_hash_buckets Number of database block hash buckets  
_db_block_hash_latches Number of database block hash latches  
_db_block_header_guard_level number of extra buffer headers to use as guard pages  
_db_block_hi_priority_batch_size Fraction of writes for high priority reasons  
_db_block_iterations_for_rm n/a number of blocks to reduce every iteration for RM  
_db_block_known_clean_pct Initial Percentage of buffers to maintain known clean  
_db_block_lru_latches number of lru latches  
_db_block_max_cr_dba Maximum Allowed Number of CR buffers per dba  
_db_block_max_scan_pct Percentage of buffers to inspect when looking for free  
_db_block_med_priority_batch_size Fraction of writes for medium priority reasons  
_db_block_numa Number of NUMA nodes  
_db_block_prefetch_fast_longjumps_enabled Batched IO enable fast longjumps  
_db_block_prefetch_limit Prefetch limit in blocks  
_db_block_prefetch_override Prefetch force override in blocks  
_db_block_prefetch_private_cache_enabled Batched IO enable private cache  
_db_block_prefetch_quota Prefetch quota as a percent of cache size  
_db_block_prefetch_skip_reading_enabled Batched IO enable skip reading buffers  
_db_block_prefetch_wasted_threshold_perc Allowed wasted percent threshold of prefetched size  
_db_block_scandepth_for_rm n/a number of blocks to reduce every iteration for RM  
_db_block_table_scan_buffer_size Size of shared table scan read buffer  
_db_block_temp_redo generate redo for temp blocks  
_db_block_trace_protect trace buffer protect calls  
_db_block_vlm_check check of rvlm mapping leaks (for debugging) check for mapping leaks (debugging only)
_db_block_vlm_leak_threshold Threshold for allowable vlm leaks threshold for allowable mapping leaks
_db_blocks_per_hash_latch Number of blocks per hash latch  
_db_bt_cache_only_readmostly_obj_on_roi n/a if TRUE, ABTC only caches read mostly objects on ROI  
_db_cache_advice_hash_latch_multiple n/a cache advisory hash latch multiple  
_db_cache_advice_max_size_factor cache advisory maximum multiple of current size to similate  
_db_cache_advice_sample_factor cache advisory sampling factor  
_db_cache_advice_sanity_check cache simulation sanity check  
_db_cache_block_read_stack_trace dump short call stack for block reads  
_db_cache_block_read_stack_trace_where1 n/a dump short call stack for block reads just for where1  
_db_cache_block_read_stack_trace_where2 n/a dump short call stack for block reads just for where2  
_db_cache_block_read_stack_trace_where3 n/a dump short call stack for block reads just for where3  
_db_cache_crx_check check for costly crx examination functions  
_db_cache_max_sz n/a    
_db_cache_miss_check_les check LEs after cache miss  
_db_cache_mman_latch_check check for wait latch get under MMAN ops in kcb  
_db_cache_pre_warm Buffer Cache Pre-Warm Enabled : hidden parameter  
_db_cache_process_cr_pin_max maximum number of cr pins a process may have  
_db_cache_silicon_secured_memory n/a enable silicon secured memory  
_db_cache_wait_debug trace new kslwaits  
_db_cache_xmem_size n/a Size of extended memory data area for buffer cache DEFAULT pool  
_db_change_notification_enable enable db change notification  
_db_check_cell_hints    
_db_disable_temp_encryption Disable Temp Encryption for Spills  
_db_discard_lost_masterkey n/a discard lost masterkey handles  
_db_dump_from_disk_and_efc dump contents from disk and efc  
_db_dw_scan_adaptive_cooling n/a if TRUE, enable adaptive DW scan cooling  
_db_dw_scan_max_shadow_count n/a DW Scan adaptive cooling max shadow count  
_db_dw_scan_obj_cooling_factor n/a DW Scan object cooling factor to cool all temperatures  
_db_dw_scan_obj_cooling_interval n/a DW Scan object cooling interval in number of scans, seconds, or pct of cache size  
_db_dw_scan_obj_cooling_policy n/a DW scan objtect cooling policy  
_db_dw_scan_obj_warming_increment n/a DW Scan object warming increment when an object is scanned  
_db_fast_obj_check enable fast object drop sanity check  
_db_fast_obj_ckpt enable fast object checkpoint  
_db_fast_obj_truncate enable fast object truncate  
_db_file_direct_io_count Sequential I/O buf size  
_db_file_exec_read_count multiblock read count for regular clients  
_db_file_format_io_buffers Block formatting I/O buf count  
_db_file_noncontig_mblock_read_count number of noncontiguous db blocks to be prefetched  
_db_file_optimizer_read_count multiblock read count for regular clients  
_db_flash_cache_disable_write_batchsize n/a Flash cache disable writes processing batchsize  
_db_flash_cache_encryption n/a Set _db_flash_cache_encryption to enable flash cache encryption  
_db_flash_cache_force_replenish_limit Flash cache force replenish lower limit in buffers  
_db_flash_cache_keep_limit Flash cache keep buffer upper limit in percentage  
_db_flash_cache_max_latency Flash cache maximum latency allowed in 10 milliseconds  
_db_flash_cache_max_outstanding_writes Flash cache maximum outstanding writes allowed  
_db_flash_cache_max_read_retry Flash cache max read retry  
_db_flash_cache_max_slow_io Flash cache maximum slow io allowed  
_db_flash_cache_slow_io_adjustment_interval n/a Decrement interval  
_db_flash_cache_write_limit Flash cache write buffer upper limit in percentage  
_db_flashback_iobuf_size Flashback IO Buffer Size  
_db_flashback_log_min_size Minimum flashback database log size in bytes  
_db_flashback_log_min_total_space Minimum flashback database log total space in bytes  
_db_flashback_num_iobuf Flashback Number of IO buffers  
_db_full_caching n/a enable full db implicit caching  
_db_full_db_cache_diff_pct n/a Cache at least this % larger than DB size for full db caching  
_db_generate_dummy_masterkey n/a if TRUE, use old havior and generate dummy master key  
_db_handles System-wide simultaneous buffer operations  
_db_handles_cached Buffer handles cached each process  
_db_hot_block_tracking track hot blocks for hash latch contention  
_db_imoltp_hashidx_force_nonctg n/a kcbw imoltp hash index force non contig granules  
_db_index_block_checking index block checking override parameter  
_db_initial_cachesize_create_mb size of cache created at startup  
_db_keep_cache_xmem_size n/a Size of KEEP buffer pool for standard block size buffers on extended memory  
_db_l2_tracing flash cache debug tracing  
_db_large_dirty_queue Number of buffers which force dirty queue to be written  
_db_link_sources_tracking n/a enable/disable database link source tracking  
_db_lost_write_checking Enable scn based lost write detection mechanism  
_db_lost_write_corrupt_block allow corruption for lost write  
_db_lost_write_tracing Enable _db_lost_write_checking tracing  
_db_minimum_auxsize_percent n/a min percent of aux buffers to be maintained before using aux2  
_db_mttr_advice MTTR advisory  
_db_mttr_partitions number of partitions for MTTR advisory  
_db_mttr_sample_factor MTTR simulation sampling factor  
_db_mttr_sim_target MTTR simulation targets  
_db_mttr_sim_trace_size MTTR simulation trace size  
_db_mttr_trace_to_alert dump trace entries to alert file  
_db_noarch_disble_optim Image redo logging (NOARCHIVEMODE)  
_db_num_evict_waitevents number of evict wait events  
_db_num_gsm n/a database number in gsm dbpool  
_db_obj_enable_ksr enable ksr in object checkpoint/reuse  
_db_percent_hot_default Percent of default buffer pool considered hot  
_db_percent_hot_keep Percent of keep buffer pool considered hot  
_db_percent_hot_recycle Percent of recycle buffer pool considered hot  
_db_percpu_create_cachesize size of cache created per cpu in deferred cache create  
_db_prefetch_histogram_statistics maintain prefetch histogram statistics in x$kcbprfhs  
_db_recovery_temporal_file_dest default database recovery temporal file location  
_db_recycle_cache_xmem_size n/a Size of Recycle buffer pool for standard block size buffers on extended memory  
_db_required_percent_fairshare_usage percent of fairshare a processor group should always use  
_db_row_overlap_checking row overlap checking override parameter for data/index blocks  
_db_shadow_lost_write_protect n/a alter shadow lost write detection for PDB  
_db_todefer_cache_create buffer cache deferred create  
_db_writer_chunk_writes Number of writes DBWR should wait for  
_db_writer_coalesce_area_size Size of memory allocated to dbwriter for coalescing writes  
_db_writer_coalesce_encrypted_buffers n/a Coalecsing for encrypted buffers  
_db_writer_coalesce_write_limit Limit on size of coalesced write  
_db_writer_flush_imu If FALSE, DBWR will not downgrade IMU txns for AGING  
_db_writer_histogram_statistics maintain dbwr histogram statistics in x$kcbbhs  
_db_writer_max_writes Max number of outstanding DB Writer IOs  
_db_writer_nomemcopy_coalesce Enable DBWR no-memcopy coalescing  
_db_writer_verify_writes Enable lost write detection mechanism  
_db_xmem_cache_encryption n/a Set _db_xmem_cache_encryption to enable XMEM cache encryption  
_db_xmem_hot_switch_criteria n/a Xmem buffer touch count which makes this buffer candidate of switching to DRAM buffer  
_dbcomp_maxdump n/a Maximum # of dumped blocks per datafile  
_dbcomp_msg_ver n/a database block compare message version  
_dbfs_modify_implicit_fetch n/a DBFS Link allows implicit fetch on modify - only on SecureFiles  
_dbfs_symlink_path_prefix n/a allow or disallow symlink creation in dbfs outside path_prefix  
_dbg_proc_startup debug process startup  
_dbg_scan generic scan debug  
_dbms_sql_security_level Security level in DBMS_SQL  
_dbmsumf$$1x n/a UMF Configuration  
_dbmsumf$$2x n/a UMF Configuration  
_dbmsumf$$3x n/a UMF Configuration  
_dbmsumf$$nn n/a UMF Configuration  
_dbmsumf$$p n/a UMF Configuration  
_dbnest_enable n/a dbNest enable  
_dbnest_pdb_fs_conf n/a PDB Filesystem configuration  
_dbnest_pdb_fs_type n/a PDB FS Type  
_dbnest_pdb_scm_conf n/a PDB SCM configuration  
_dbnest_pdb_scm_level n/a PDB SCM Level  
_dbnest_stage_dir n/a Staging directory configuration  
_dbop_enabled n/a Any positive number enables automatic DBOP monitoring. 0 is disabled  
_dbpool_name n/a gsm database pool name  
_dbreplay_feature_control n/a Database Replay Feature Control  
_dbrm_dynamic_threshold DBRM dynamic threshold setting  
_dbrm_num_runnable_list Resource Manager number of runnable list per NUMA node  
_dbrm_quantum DBRM quantum  
_dbrm_runchk Resource Manager Diagnostic Running Thread Check  
_dbrm_short_wait_us Resource Manager short wait length  
_dbwr_async_io Enable dbwriter asynchronous writes  
_dbwr_flashlock_shrink_limit n/a limit to shrink le to flash lock per dbwr iteration  
_dbwr_nowrite_assert_interval n/a dbwriter assert interval after no write seconds  
_dbwr_nwp_assert_interval n/a dbwriter no write permission assert interval after no write seconds  
_dbwr_scan_interval dbwriter scan interval  
_dbwr_stall_write_detection_interval n/a dbwriter stall write detection interval  
_dbwr_tracing Enable dbwriter tracing  
_dd_validate_remote_locks GES deadlock detection validate remote locks  
_dde_flood_control_init Initialize Flood Control at database open  
_dead_process_scan_interval PMON dead process scan interval (in seconds)  
_deadlock_diagnostic_level automatic deadlock resolution diagnostics level  
_deadlock_record_to_alert_log n/a record resolved deadlocks to the alert log  
_deadlock_resolution_incidents_always create incidents when resolving any deadlock?  
_deadlock_resolution_incidents_enabled create incidents during deadlock resolution  
_deadlock_resolution_level automatic deadlock resolution level  
_deadlock_resolution_min_wait_timeout_secs the minimum wait timeout required for deadlock resolution  
_deadlock_resolution_signal_process_thresh_secs the amount of time given to process a deadlock resolution signal  
_dedicated_server_poll_count dedicated server poll count  
_dedicated_server_post_wait dedicated server post/wait  
_dedicated_server_post_wait_call dedicated server post/wait call  
_default_encrypt_alg default encryption algorithm  
_default_non_equality_sel_check sanity check on default selectivity for like/range predicate  
_default_pct_free n/a Default value of PCT_FREE enforced by DWCS lockdown  
_defer_eor_orl_arch_for_so defer EOR ORL archival for switchover  
_defer_log_boundary_ckpt defer media recovery checkpoint at log boundary  
_defer_log_count Number of log boundaries media recovery checkpoint lags behind  
_defer_rcv_during_sw_to_sby Defer recovery during switchover to standby  
_defer_sga_alloc_chunk_size n/a Chunk size for defer sga allocation  
_defer_sga_enabled n/a Enable deferred shared memory allocation for SGA  
_defer_sga_min_spsz_at_startup n/a Minimum shared pool size at startup with deferred sga enabled  
_defer_sga_min_total_defer_segs_sz n/a Minimum total deferred segs size for defer sga allocation  
_defer_sga_test_alloc_intv n/a SA** sleeps for N secs before allocating a deferred segment  
_defer_while_patching n/a Session should be deferred if patching is secheduled  
_deferred_constant_folding_mode Deferred constant folding mode  
_deferred_log_dest_is_valid consider deferred log dest as valid for log deletion (TRUE/FALSE)  
_deferred_seg_in_seed n/a Enable Deferred Segment Creation in Seed  
_delay_index_maintain delays index maintenance until after MV is refreshed  
_delete_ghost_data n/a Test delete ghost data  
_delta_push_share_blockers n/a enable delta push if greater than the # of share blockers  
_deq_execute_reset_time deq execute reset time  
_deq_ht_child_latches deq ht child latches  
_deq_ht_max_elements deq ht max elements  
_deq_large_txn_size deq large txn size  
_deq_log_array_size deq log array size  
_deq_max_fetch_count deq max fetch count  
_deq_maxwait_time Change wait times between dequeue calls  
_desired_readmem_rate The desired percentage of redo reading from memory  
_df_hist_offl_override n/a Allow update of keep offline bit in datafile history record  
_dg_broker_trace_level data guard broker trace level  
_dg_cf_check_timer Data Guard controlfile check timer  
_dg_corrupt_redo_log Corrupt redo log validation during archivals  
_diag_adl_dyn_alloc n/a Enable Diag Alert Dynamic Allocation  
_diag_adr_auto_purge Enable/disable ADR MMON Auto Purging  
_diag_adr_enabled Parameter to enable/disable Diag ADR  
_diag_adr_test_param Test parameter for Diagnosability  
_diag_adr_trace_dest n/a diagnosability trace directory path  
_diag_alert_root_annotate n/a Enable annotation for alert log entries from root  
_diag_arb_before_kill dump diagnostics before killing unresponsive ARBs  
_diag_attn_log_format_error n/a Attention Log Error Entry format  
_diag_attn_log_format_standard n/a Attention Log Standard Entry format  
_diag_backward_compat Backward Compatibility for Diagnosability  
_diag_cc_enabled Parameter to enable/disable Diag Call Context  
_diag_cdb_logging n/a Format for CDB Annotation  
_diag_conf_cap_enabled Parameter to enable/disable Diag Configuration Capture  
_diag_crashdump_level parameter for systemstate dump level, used by DIAG during crash  
_diag_daemon start DIAG daemon  
_diag_dde_async_age_limit diag dde async actions: message age limit (in seconds)  
_diag_dde_async_cputime_limit diag dde async actions: action cputime limit (in seconds)  
_diag_dde_async_mode diag dde async actions: dispatch mode  
_diag_dde_async_msg_capacity diag dde async actions: message buffer capacity  
_diag_dde_async_msgs diag dde async actions: number of preallocated message buffers  
_diag_dde_async_process_rate diag dde async actions: message processing rate - per loop  
_diag_dde_async_runtime_limit diag dde async actions: action runtime limit (in seconds)  
_diag_dde_async_slaves diag dde async actions: max number of concurrent slave processes  
_diag_dde_enabled enable DDE handling of critical errors  
_diag_dde_fc_enabled Parameter to enable/disable Diag Flood Control  
_diag_dde_fc_implicit_time Override Implicit Error Flood Control time parameter  
_diag_dde_fc_macro_time Override Macro Error Flood Control time parameter  
_diag_dde_inc_proc_delay The minimum delay between two MMON incident sweeps (minutes)  
_diag_diagnostics Turn off diag diagnostics  
_diag_dump_request_debug_level DIAG dump request debug level (0-2)  
_diag_dump_timeout timeout parameter for SYNC dump  
_diag_enable_startup_events enable events in instance startup notifiers  
_diag_hm_rc_enabled Parameter to enable/disable Diag HM Reactive Checks  
_diag_hm_tc_enabled Parameter to enable/disable Diag HM Test(dummy) Checks  
_diag_large_packets n/a DIA* large packets support  
_diag_patch_cap_enabled n/a Parameter to enable/disable Diag Patch Configuration Capture  
_diag_pdb_control n/a DIAG PDB Space Management Control Parameter  
_diag_pdb_purge_target n/a Controls target percentage for ADR PDB Auto Purge Operation  
_diag_pdb_purge_threshold n/a Controls threshold for ADR PDB Auto Purge Operation  
_diag_proc_enabled enable hung process diagnostic API  
_diag_proc_max_time_ms hung process diagnostic API max wait time in milliseconds  
_diag_proc_stack_capture_type hung process diagnostic API stack capture type  
_diag_test_seg_reinc_mode n/a Sets trace segmentation to be in reincarnation mode  
_diag_uts_control UTS control parameter  
_diag_verbose_error_on_init Allow verbose error tracing on diag init  
_diag_xm_enabled n/a If TRUE, DIAG allows message exchanges across DB/ASM boundary  
_dimension_skip_null control dimension skip when null feature  
_direct_io_skip_cur_slot_on_error Skip current slot on error  
_direct_io_slots number of slots for direct path I/O  
_direct_io_wslots number of write slots for direct path I/O  
_direct_path_insert_features disable direct path insert features  
_direct_read_decision_statistics_driven enable direct read decision based on optimizer statistics  
_dirty_appliance_mode n/a Enable appliance mode even on non-appliance  
_disable_12751 disable policy timeout error (ORA-12751)  
_disable_12cbigfile n/a DIsable Storing ILM Statistics in 12cBigFiles  
_disable_active_influx_move disable active influx move during parallel media recovery  
_disable_actualization_for_grant n/a disable actualization of editioned objects on grant  
_disable_adaptive_shrunk_aggregation adaptive shrunk aggregation  
_disable_adp_adj_buf_check n/a No adjacent buffer check for ADP  
_disable_appliance_check Disable checking for appliance bread crumbs Disable appliance-specific code
_disable_appliance_partnering Disable partnering mode for appliance Disable appliance partnering algorithms
_disable_asm_audit_feat n/a disable ASM audit features  
_disable_autotune_gtx disable autotune global transaction background processes  
_disable_block_checking disable block checking at the session level  
_disable_cdb_view_rc_invalidation n/a disable Result Cache invalidation for CDB View results  
_disable_cell_optimized_backups disable cell optimized backups  
_disable_con_recurse_queuing n/a disable parallel statement queuing for containers() recursive SQL  
_disable_cpu_check disable cpu_count check  
_disable_cursor_sharing disable cursor sharing  
_disable_data_block_check_after_decrypt n/a if TRUE, disable data block check after decryption  
_disable_datalayer_sampling disable datalayer sampling  
_disable_dblink_optim n/a disable intra CDB dblink optimizations  
_disable_def_seg_update n/a Disable deferred seg$ update  
_disable_destructive_patch_operation n/a Is destructive operation allowed in a patch  
_disable_dict_check_pdb_open n/a disable PDB pseudo open for dictionary check purpose  
_disable_directory_link_check n/a Disable directory link checking  
_disable_duplex_link Turn off connection duplexing  
_disable_duplicate_service_warning n/a disable listener warning for duplicate service  
_disable_fast_aggregation fast aggregation  
_disable_fast_validate disable PL/SQL fast validation  
_disable_fastopen Do Not Use Fastopen  
_disable_fba_qrw disable flashback archiver query rewrite  
_disable_fba_wpr disable flashback archiver wait for prepared transactions  
_disable_file_locks disable file locks for control, data, redo log files  
_disable_file_resize_logging n/a disable file resize logging to alert log  
_disable_flashback_archiver disable flashback archiver disable flashback archiver
_disable_flashback_recyclebin_opt n/a Don't use the Flashback Recyclebin optimization  
_disable_flashback_wait_callback Disable flashback wait callback  
_disable_function_based_index disable function-based index matching  
_disable_gvaq_cache Disable cache  
_disable_hcc_array_insert n/a TRUE - enable conventional inserts into HCC CUs  
_disable_health_check Disable Health Check  
_disable_highres_ticks disable high-res tick counter  
_disable_image_check Disable Oracle executable image checking  
_disable_implicit_row_movement disable implicit row movement  
_disable_incremental_checkpoints Disable incremental checkpoints for thread recovery  
_disable_incremental_recovery_ckpt Disable incremental recovery checkpoint mechanism  
_disable_index_block_prefetching disable index block prefetching  
_disable_inheritpriv_grant_public n/a Disable inherit privilege grant to PUBLIC for newly created users  
_disable_initial_block_compression disable initial block compression  
_disable_instance_params_check disable instance type check for ksp  
_disable_interface_checking disable interface checking at startup  
_disable_kcb_flashback_blocknew_opt Disable KCB flashback block new optimization  
_disable_kcbhxor_osd disable kcbh(c)xor OSD functionality  
_disable_kcbl_flashback_blocknew_opt Disable KCBL flashback block new optimization  
_disable_kgghshcrc32_osd disable kgghshcrc32chk OSD functionality  
_disable_latch_free_SCN_writes_via_32cas n/a disable latch-free SCN writes using 32-bit compare & swap  
_disable_latch_free_SCN_writes_via_64cas n/a disable latch-free SCN writes using 64-bit compare & swap  
_disable_logging Disable logging  
_disable_lostwrite_tablespace_alerts n/a disable tablespace alerts for LOSTWRITE tablespaces  
_disable_metrics_group Disable Metrics Group (or all Metrics Groups)  
_disable_modsvc_refresh n/a disable modify service cache refresh  
_disable_multiple_block_sizes disable multiple block size support (for debugging)  
_disable_odm disable odm feature  
_disable_oradebug_commands disable execution of certain categories of oradebug commands  
_disable_os_time_page n/a disable OS time page  
_disable_parallel_conventional_load Disable parallel conventional loads  
_disable_primary_bitmap_switch disable primary bitmap switch  
_disable_ptl_replay n/a Is PTL replay disabled during Application Sync  
_disable_read_only_open_dict_check Disable read-only open dictionary check  
_disable_rebalance_compact n/a disable space usage checks for storage reconfiguration  
_disable_rebalance_space_check disable space usage checks for storage reconfiguration  
_disable_recovery_read_skip Disable the read optimization during media recovery  
_disable_rolling_patch n/a Disable Rolling Patch Feature  
_disable_sample_io_optim disable row sampling IO optimization  
_disable_savepoint_reset disable the fix for bug 1402161  
_disable_selftune_checkpointing Disable self-tune checkpointing  
_disable_sensitive_internal n/a disable internal SQL from showing sensitive information  
_disable_storage_type Disable storage type checks  
_disable_streams_diagnostics streams diagnostics  
_disable_streams_pool_auto_tuning disable streams pool auto tuning  
_disable_sun_rsm Disable IPC OSD support for Sun RSMAPI  
_disable_system_state disable system state dump  
_disable_system_state_wait_samples Disable system state dump - wait samples  
_disable_system_tablespaces_enc_enforcement n/a if TRUE, disable system tablespaces encryption enforcement  
_disable_temp_tablespace_alerts disable tablespace alerts for TEMPORARY tablespaces  
_disable_thread_internal_disable Disable thread internal disable feature  
_disable_thread_snapshot Thread snapshot  
_disable_txn_alert disable txn layer alert  
_disable_undo_tablespace_alerts disable tablespace alerts for UNDO tablespaces  
_disable_wait_state Disable wait state  
_discard_cmn_ddl_in_pdb_err n/a Discard error when Common DDL is attempted in PDB  
_discrete_transactions_enabled enable OLTP mode  
_disk_sector_size_override if TRUE, OSD sector size could be overridden  
_diskmon_pipe_name DiSKMon skgznp pipe name  
_disksize_binary_search n/a if set, perform binary search to get disk size if IOCTL fails  
_dispatcher_listen_on_vip n/a Determines if dispatcher listens on VIP if no HOST is supplied  
_dispatcher_rate_scale scale to display rate statistic (100ths of a second)  
_dispatcher_rate_ttl time-to-live for rate statistic (100ths of a second)  
_distinct_agg_optimization_gsets n/a Use Distinct Aggregate Optimization for Grouping Sets  
_distinct_view_unnesting enables unnesting of in subquery into distinct view  
_distributed_recovery_connection_hold_time number of seconds RECO holds outbound connections open  
_disttxn_for_queries n/a remote queries start distributed transaction  
_dlm_cache_warmup_slaves n/a Number of DLM cache warm up slaves  
_dlm_stats_collect n/a DLM statistics collection(0 = disable, 1 = enable (default))  
_dlm_stats_collect_du_limit n/a DLM statistics collection disk updates per slot  
_dlm_stats_collect_mode n/a DLM statistics collection mode  
_dlm_stats_collect_slot_interval n/a DLM statistics collection slot interval (in seconds)  
_dlmtrace Trace string of global enqueue type(s)  
_dm_dmf_details_compatibility n/a set dm dmf details compatibility version  
_dm_enable_legacy_dmf_output_types n/a revert dmf output types to pre-12.1.0.1  
_dm_inmemory_threshold n/a In-memory cardinality threshold  
_dm_max_chunk_size n/a Data Mining Max Chunk Size  
_dm_max_shared_pool_pct max percentage of the shared pool to use for a mining model  
_dml_batch_error_limit number or error handles allocated for DML in batch mode  
_dml_frequency_tracking Control DML frequency tracking  
_dml_frequency_tracking_advance Control automatic advance and broadcast of DML frequencies  
_dml_frequency_tracking_slot_time Time length of each slot for DML frequency tracking  
_dml_frequency_tracking_slots Number of slots to use for DML frequency tracking  
_dml_monitoring_enabled enable modification monitoring  
_dmm_auto_max_features n/a Auto Max Features  
_dmm_blas_library n/a Control which BLAS/LAPACK dynamic library to load  
_dmm_cnt_arr_size_threshold n/a Counts Array Size Threshold  
_dmm_details_filter_weight n/a Filter details based on weight  
_dmm_force_treetop_merge n/a Force Treetop Merge  
_dmm_inc_cholesky_rows n/a Incomplete Cholesky number of rows  
_dmm_ipp_cutoff n/a Intra-Partition Parallel size cutoff  
_dmm_kmean_dense_threshold n/a Kmean densify threshold  
_dmm_max_memory_size n/a Maximum Memory Size  
_dmm_memory_size n/a Memory Size  
_dmm_nobin_threshold n/a No Binning Row Count Threshold  
_dmm_pga_load_threshold n/a Model size less than threshold are loaded into PGA  
_dmm_reduction_rate n/a Reduction rate in reduction tree  
_dmm_sample_lower_threshold n/a Minimum Sample Size  
_dmm_sample_upper_threshold n/a Maximum Sample Size  
_dmm_ts_lapack n/a Enable usage of BLAS/LAPACK for Tall Skinny SVD  
_dmsqr_qr_chunk_rows n/a QR maximum chunk rows  
_dnfs_rdma_enable n/a Enable dNFS RDMA transfers  
_dnfs_rdma_max n/a Maximum size of dNFS RDMA transfer  
_dnfs_rdma_min n/a Minimum size of dNFS RDMA transfer  
_domain_index_batch_size maximum number of rows from one call to domain index fetch routine  
_domain_index_dml_batch_size maximum number of rows for one call to domain index dml routines  
_dra_bmr_number_threshold Maximum number of BMRs that can be done to a file  
_dra_bmr_percent_threshold Maximum percentage of blocks in a file that can be BMR-ed  
_dra_enable_offline_dictionary Enable the periodic creation of the offline dictionary for DRA  
_drm_parallel_freeze if TRUE enables parallel drm freeze  
_drop_flashback_logical_operations_enq Drop logical operations enqueue immediately during flashback marker generation  
_drop_stat_segment n/a drop ilm statistics segment  
_drop_table_granule drop_table_granule  
_drop_table_optimization_enabled reduce SGA memory use during drop of a partitioned table  
_drop_tablespace_objects n/a GDR: drop all tablespace objects  
_ds_enable_auto_txn Dynamic Sampling Service Autonomous Transaction control parameter  
_ds_enable_view_sampling n/a Use sampling for views in Dynamic Sampling  
_ds_iocount_iosize Dynamic Sampling Service defaults: #IOs and IO Size  
_ds_parse_model Dynamic Sampling Service Parse Model control parameter  
_ds_progressive_initial_samples n/a Number of initial samples used for progressive sampling  
_ds_progressive_no_matches_min_sample_size n/a Minimum sample size at which progressive sampling report no match  
_ds_sampling_method n/a Dynamic sampling method used  
_ds_xt_split_count n/a Dynamic Sampling Service: split count for external tables  
_dsc_feature_level controls the feature level for deferred segment creation  
_dskm_health_check_cnt DiSKMon health check counter  
_dskm_single_instance n/a DSKM and Diskmon operating in Single Instance mode  
_dss_cache_flush enable full cache flush for parallel execution  
_dss_cache_flush_threshold n/a threshold when thread ckpt considered over obj ckpt  
_dtree_area_size size of Decision Tree Classification work area  
_dtree_binning_enabled Decision Tree Binning Enabled  
_dtree_bintest_id n/a Decision Tree Binning Test ID  
_dtree_compressbmp_enabled n/a Decision Tree Using Compressed Bitmaps Enabled  
_dtree_max_surrogates maximum number of surrogates  
_dtree_pruning_enabled Decision Tree Pruning Enabled  
_dummy_instance dummy instance started by RMAN  
_dump_10261_level Dump level for event 10261, 1=>minimal dump 2=>top pga dump  
_dump_common_subexpressions dump common subexpressions  
_dump_connect_by_loop_data dump connect by loop error message into trc file  
_dump_cursor_heap_sizes dump comp/exec heap sizes to tryace file  
_dump_interval_limit trace dump time interval limit (in seconds)  
_dump_max_limit max number of dump within dump interval  
_dump_qbc_tree dump top level query parse tree to trace  
_dump_rcvr_ipc if TRUE enables IPC dump at instance eviction time  
_dump_scn_increment_stack Dumps scn increment stack per session  
_dump_system_state_scope scope of sysstate dump during instance termination  
_dump_trace_scope scope of trace dump during a process crash  
_duplicated_table_complete_refresh_percent n/a percent threshold for duplicated table to do complete refresh  
_dupt_noupdate n/a disable duplicated table updates  
_dynamic_rls_policies rls policies are dynamic  
_dynamic_sequence_cache n/a Enable/disable sequence dynamic cache sizing  
_dynamic_sequence_cache_max n/a Sequence dynamic cache maximum size  
_dynamic_sequence_cache_scale n/a Max scale factor for dynamic sequence cache size  
_dynamic_sessions_force_timeout n/a dynamic session force timeout  
_dynamic_sessions_inc_count n/a dynamic session increment count  
_dynamic_sessions_max_oom_timeout n/a dynamic session max timeout for out of memory  
_dynamic_sessions_min_force_timeout n/a dynamic min session force timeout  
_dynamic_sessions_wait_timeout n/a dynamic session wait timeout for new session  
_dynamic_share_range_factor n/a dynamic share range factor  
_dynamic_stats_threshold delay threshold (in seconds) between sending statistics messages  
_early_flush_delta n/a SCN delta to trigger early log flush  
_edition_enable_oracle_users n/a Edition enable Oracle supplied users  
_eighteenth_spare_parameter eighteenth spare parameter - string eighteenth spare parameter - integer
_eighth_spare_parameter eighth spare parameter - integer  
_eightieth_spare_parameter n/a eightieth spare parameter - integer  
_eighty-eighth_spare_parameter n/a eighty-eighth spare parameter - string  
_eighty-fifth_spare_parameter n/a eighty-fifth spare parameter - string  
_eighty-first_spare_parameter n/a eighty-first spare parameter - string  
_eighty-fourth_spare_parameter n/a eighty-fourth spare parameter - string  
_eighty-ninth_spare_parameter n/a eighty-ninth spare parameter - string  
_eighty-seventh_spare_parameter n/a eighty-seventh spare parameter - string  
_eighty-sixth_spare_parameter n/a eighty-sixth spare parameter - string  
_eighty-third_spare_parameter n/a eighty-third spare parameter - string  
_eleventh_spare_parameter eleventh spare parameter - integer  
_eliminate_common_subexpr enables elimination of common sub-expressions  
_emon_max_active_connections maximum open connections to clients per emon  
_emon_outbound_connect_timeout timeout for completing connection set up to clients  
_emon_pool_inc n/a increment in EMON slaves per pool type  
_emon_pool_max n/a maximum number of EMON slaves per pool type  
_emon_pool_min n/a minimum number of EMON slaves per pool type  
_emon_regular_ntfn_slaves number of EMON slaves doing regular database notifications  
_emon_send_timeout send timeout after which the client is unregistered  
_emx_control n/a EM Express control (internal use only)  
_emx_max_sessions n/a Maximum number of sessions in the EM Express cache  
_emx_session_timeout n/a Session timeout (sec) in the EM Express cache  
_ena_storage_lmt n/a Enable storage clause for LMT  
_enable_12g_bft n/a enable 12g bigfile tablespace  
_enable_Front_End_View_Optimization enable front end view optimization  
_enable_LGPG_debug n/a Enable LGPG debug mode  
_enable_NUMA_interleave Enable NUMA interleave mode  
_enable_NUMA_optimization Enable NUMA specific optimizations  
_enable_NUMA_support Enable NUMA support and optimizations  
_enable_asyncvio enable asynch vectored I/O  
_enable_auto_upgrade n/a Enable automatic PDB upgrade  
_enable_automatic_maintenance if 1, Automated Maintenance Is Enabled  
_enable_automatic_sqltune Automatic SQL Tuning Advisory enabled parameter  
_enable_block_level_transaction_recovery enable block level recovery  
_enable_buffer_header_history n/a if TRUE, records operation history in buffer headers  
_enable_cdb_upgrade_capture n/a Enable capture of CDB upgrade  
_enable_check_truncate enable checking of corruption caused by canceled truncate  
_enable_columnar_cache n/a Enable Columnar Flash Cache Rewrite  
_enable_containers_subquery n/a enable transformation to containers() sub query  
_enable_cscn_caching enable commit SCN caching for all transactions  
_enable_dbwr_auto_tracing n/a enable dbwriter auto-tracing  
_enable_ddl_wait_lock use this to turn off ddls with wait semantics  
_enable_default_affinity enable default implementation of hard affinity osds  
_enable_default_temp_threshold Enable Default Tablespace Utilization Threshold for UNDO Tablespaces  
_enable_default_undo_threshold Enable Default Tablespace Utilization Threshold for TEMPORARY Tablespaces  
_enable_diag_dump_dir n/a Enables Diag putting dumps in their own dir  
_enable_dml_lock_escalation enable dml lock escalation against partitioned tables if TRUE  
_enable_drop_clone n/a Is drop of a Root Clone allowed  
_enable_dynamic_sessions n/a dynamic session SOs  
_enable_editions_for_users enable editions for all users  
_enable_event_ports n/a Enable/Disable event ports  
_enable_exchange_validation_using_check use check constraints on the table for validation  
_enable_fast_file_zero enable fast file zero code path  
_enable_fast_ref_after_mv_tbs enable fast refresh after move tablespace  
_enable_ffw FAL FORWARDING  
_enable_flash_logging Enable Exadata Smart Flash Logging  
_enable_guid_endpoint_service n/a Enable service functionality for GUID service  
_enable_hash_overflow TRUE - enable hash cluster overflow based on SIZE  
_enable_heatmap_internal n/a heatmap related - to be used by oracle dev only  
_enable_http_digest_generation n/a generation of the HTTP Digest verifier is enabled  
_enable_hwm_sync enable HWM synchronization  
_enable_iee_stats n/a enables IEE stats gathering  
_enable_ilm_flush_stats n/a Enable ILM Stats Flush  
_enable_ilm_testflush_stats n/a Enable Test ILM Stats Flush  
_enable_ios_spm n/a Allow Split Mirror operations via IOServer  
_enable_kernel_io_outliers n/a enable kernel I/O outlier feature  
_enable_kqf_purge Enable KQF fixed runtime table purge  
_enable_list_io Enable List I/O  
_enable_metrics_allpdb n/a Enable/Disable Metrics for Root and all PDBs if applicable  
_enable_metrics_pdb n/a Enable/Disable Metrics for this Non-Root PDB  
_enable_midtier_affinity enable midtier affinity metrics processing  
_enable_minscn_cr enable/disable minscn optimization for CR  
_enable_module_match n/a Is match of module name enforced  
_enable_multiple_fgprepares n/a Allow concurrent PREPAREs on the same database  
_enable_nativenet_tcpip Enable skgxp driver usage for native net  
_enable_nvm_dispatcher n/a Enable NVM Dispatcher  
_enable_obj_queues enable object queues  
_enable_offloaded_writes n/a Enable offloaded writes for Unit Test  
_enable_online_index_without_s_locking Allow online index creation algorithm without S DML lock  
_enable_os_cpu_rm n/a Enable OS CPU Resource Management  
_enable_parallel_dml n/a enables or disables parallel dml  
_enable_partial_sync n/a Is partial sync of a Federation allowed  
_enable_pdb_close_abort n/a Enable PDB shutdown abort (close abort)  
_enable_pdb_close_noarchivelog n/a Enable PDB close abort with no archive logging  
_enable_pdb_isolation n/a Enables Pluggable Database isolation inside a CDB  
_enable_pdb_process_limit n/a Enable process limit as the number of sessions in the PDB.  
_enable_plcmnt_pol_usage n/a enable placement policy usage  
_enable_pluggable_database n/a Enable Pluggable Database  
_enable_pmo_outside_begin_end n/a Enable PMO outside begin-end block  
_enable_proxy_distr_txn n/a Enable Distributed Transaction in Proxy PDB  
_enable_query_rewrite_on_remote_objs mv rewrite on remote table/view  
_enable_redo_global_post LGWR post globally on write  
_enable_refresh_schedule enable or disable MV refresh scheduling (revert to 9.2 behavior)  
_enable_rejection_cache n/a Enable ASSM rejection cache  
_enable_reliable_latch_waits Enable reliable latch waits  
_enable_rename_user enable RENAME-clause using ALTER USER statement  
_enable_replay_upgrade_diag n/a Enable diagnostics for Replay Upgrade  
_enable_rlb enable RLB metrics processing  
_enable_row_shipping use the row shipping optimization for wide table selects  
_enable_sb_detection n/a Split Brain Detection  
_enable_schema_synonyms enable DDL operations (e.g. creation) involving schema synonyms  
_enable_scn_wait_interface use this to turn off scn wait interface in kta  
_enable_secure_sub_role n/a Disallow enabling of secure sub roles  
_enable_securefile_flashback_opt n/a Enable securefile flashback optimization  
_enable_sensitive_trace n/a enable traces to contain sensitive information  
_enable_separable_transactions enable/disable separable transactions  
_enable_shared_pool_durations temporary to disable/enable kgh policy  
_enable_shared_server_sizing n/a Enable sizing manager for shared servers  
_enable_shared_server_sizing_slope n/a Enable utility slope in sizing manager for shared servers  
_enable_shared_server_vector_io Enable shared server vector I/O  
_enable_single_dgprepare n/a Disable concurrent PREPAREs in same disk group  
_enable_space_preallocation enable space pre-allocation  
_enable_spacebg enable space management background task  
_enable_sysaux_gdr n/a GDR: Enable on SYSAUX  
_enable_system_app n/a Enable System app for CDB-wide common users  
_enable_tablespace_alerts enable tablespace alerts  
_enable_tcpinfo_statistics n/a Enable TCP Info Statistics  
_enable_thr_kill n/a Enable/Disable thread directed signalling  
_enable_type_dep_selectivity enable type dependent selectivity estimates  
_enable_verbose_gdr n/a GDR: Enable verbose  
_enable_view_pdb n/a Enable Proxy PDB support  
_endprot_chunk_comment chunk comment for selective overrun protection  
_endprot_heap_comment heap comment for selective overrun protection  
_endprot_subheaps selective overrun protection for subeheaps  
_enqueue_deadlock_detect_all_global_locks n/a enable deadlock detection on all global enqueues  
_enqueue_deadlock_scan_secs deadlock scan interval  
_enqueue_deadlock_time_sec requests with timeout <= this will not have deadlock detection  
_enqueue_debug_multi_instance debug enqueue multi instance  
_enqueue_hash enqueue hash table length  
_enqueue_hash_chain_latches enqueue hash chain latches  
_enqueue_locks locks for managed enqueues  
_enqueue_paranoia_mode_enabled enable enqueue layer advanced debugging checks  
_enqueue_resources resources for enqueues  
_enqueue_scan_interval n/a enqueue scan interval  
_enqueue_sync_retry_attempts n/a max number of times the bg process to retry synchronous enqueue open if it failed because master could not allocate memory  
_enqueue_sync_sim_mem_error n/a simulate master instance running out of memory when synchronously getting a remotely mastered enqueue  
_error_row_predicate_evaluation n/a skip predicate evaluation for error rows  
_event_port_opts n/a Options for event ports  
_evolve_plan_baseline_report_level n/a Level of detail to show in plan verification/evolution report  
_evt_system_event_propagation disable system event propagation  
_exadata_feature_on n/a Exadata Feature On  
_exclude_seed_cdb_view n/a exclude PDB$SEED from CDB View Result  
_expand_aggregates expand aggregates  
_explain_rewrite_mode allow additional messages to be generated during explain rewrite  
_expression_tracking_elem_per_bucket n/a Number of expression usage statistics elements per hash bucket  
_expression_tracking_latch_count n/a Number of latches for tracking expression usage statistics  
_extended_pruning_enabled do runtime pruning in iterator if set to TRUE  
_external_scn_activity_tracking n/a enable/disable external scn activity tracking  
_external_scn_logging_threshold_seconds High delta SCN threshold in seconds  
_external_scn_rejection_delta_threshold_minutes external SCN rejection delta threshold in minutes  
_external_scn_rejection_threshold_hours Lag in hours between max allowed SCN and an external SCN  
_external_table_hive_partition_restricted n/a restrict external tabel hive partition methods to Hive supported  
_external_table_smart_scan n/a External Table Smart Scan  
_extra_lmn_enabled n/a suppl logging for extra record enabled  
_fair_remote_cvt if TRUE enables fair remote convert  
_fairness_threshold number of times to CR serve before downgrading lock  
_fast_cr_clone n/a enable fast cr clone feature  
_fast_cursor_reexecute use more memory in order to get faster execution  
_fast_dual_enabled enable/disable fast dual  
_fast_full_scan_enabled enable/disable index fast full scan  
_fast_index_maintenance n/a fast global index maintenance during PMOPs  
_fast_psby_conversion n/a Enable fast physical standby conversion  
_fastpin_enable enable reference count based fast pins  
_fatalprocess_redo_dump_time_limit n/a time limit, in secs, for diagnostic redo dumps by a fatal process  
_fbda_busy_percentage flashback archiver busy percentage  
_fbda_debug_assert flashback archiver debug assert for testing  
_fbda_debug_mode flashback archiver debug event for testing  
_fbda_global_bscn_lag flashback archiver global barrier scn lag  
_fbda_inline_percentage flashback archiver inline percentage  
_fbda_rac_inactive_limit flashback archiver rac inactive limit  
_fbda_tcrv_cleanup_lag n/a flashback archiver tcrv cleanup lag in secs  
_federation_max_root_clones n/a Maximum number of Federation Root Clones per Application  
_federation_script n/a Running a Federation script  
_fg_fast_sync_slack_usecs n/a DAX log file sync sleep slack time  
_fg_fast_sync_sleep_target_pct n/a DAX log file sync sleep target pct  
_fg_fast_sync_sleep_usecs n/a DAX log file sync sleep time  
_fg_fast_sync_spin_usecs n/a DAX log file sync spin time  
_fg_iorm_slaves ForeGround I/O slaves for IORM  
_fg_log_checksum Checksum redo in foreground process  
_fg_sync_sleep_usecs Log file sync via usleep  
_fic_algorithm_set Set Frequent Itemset Counting Algorithm  
_fic_area_size size of Frequent Itemset Counting work area  
_fic_max_length n/a Frequent Itemset Counting Maximum Itemset Length  
_fic_min_bmsize Frequent Itemset Counting Minimum BITMAP Size  
_fic_outofmem_candidates n/a Frequent Itemset Counting Out Of Memory Candidates Generation  
_fifteenth_spare_parameter fifteenth spare parameter - integer  
_fifth_spare_parameter fifth spare parameter - integer  
_fiftieth_spare_parameter n/a fiftieth spare parameter - integer  
_fifty-eighth_spare_parameter n/a fifty-eighth spare parameter - integer  
_fifty-fifth_spare_parameter n/a fifty-fifth spare parameter - integer  
_fifty-first_spare_parameter n/a fifty-first spare parameter - integer  
_fifty-fourth_spare_parameter n/a fifty-fourth spare parameter - integer  
_fifty-ninth_spare_parameter n/a fifty-ninth spare parameter - integer  
_fifty-second_spare_parameter n/a fifty-second spare parameter - integer  
_fifty-seventh_spare_parameter n/a fifty-seventh spare parameter - integer  
_fifty-sixth_spare_parameter n/a fifty-sixth spare parameter - integer  
_fifty-third_spare_parameter n/a fifty-third spare parameter - integer  
_file_offline_sync_timeout n/a Timeout to sync file offline enqueue (secs)  
_file_set_enqueue_timeout n/a Timeout to acquire file set enqueue (secs)  
_file_size_increase_increment Amount of file size increase increment, in bytes  
_filemap_dir FILEMAP directory  
_first_k_rows_dynamic_proration enable the use of dynamic proration of join cardinalities  
_first_spare_parameter first spare parameter - integer  
_fix_control bug fix control parameter  
_fix_fuzzy_scn n/a fix fuzzy SCN  
_flashback_11.1_block_new_opt n/a use 11.1 flashback block new optimization scheme  
_flashback_11_1_block_new_opt n/a use 11.1 flashback block new optimization scheme  
_flashback_allow_noarchivelog Allow enabling flashback on noarchivelog database  
_flashback_archiver_partition_size flashback archiver table partition size  
_flashback_barrier_interval Flashback barrier interval in seconds  
_flashback_copy_latches Number of flashback copy latches  
_flashback_database_test_only Run Flashback Database in test mode  
_flashback_delete_chunk_MB Amount of flashback log (in MB) to delete in one attempt  
_flashback_dynamic_enable enable flashback enable code path  
_flashback_dynamic_enable_failure Simulate failures during dynamic enable  
_flashback_enable_ra Flashback enable read ahead  
_flashback_format_chunk_mb Chunk mega-bytes for formatting flashback logs using sync write  
_flashback_format_chunk_mb_dwrite Chunk mega-bytes for formatting flashback logs using delayed write  
_flashback_fuzzy_barrier Use flashback fuzzy barrier  
_flashback_generation_buffer_size flashback generation buffer size  
_flashback_hint_barrier_percent Flashback hint barrier percent  
_flashback_log_io_error_behavior Specify Flashback log I/O error behavior  
_flashback_log_min_size Minimum flashback log size  
_flashback_log_rac_balance_factor flashback log rac balance factor  
_flashback_log_size Flashback log size  
_flashback_logfile_enqueue_timeout flashback logfile enqueue timeout for opens  
_flashback_marker_cache_enabled Enable flashback database marker cache  
_flashback_marker_cache_size Size of flashback database marker cache  
_flashback_marker_for_every_grp n/a generate a new flashback marker for every GRP  
_flashback_max_log_size Maximum flashback log size in bytes (OS limit)  
_flashback_max_n_log_per_thread Maximum number of flashback logs per flashback thread  
_flashback_max_standby_sync_span Maximum time span between standby recovery sync for flashback  
_flashback_n_log_per_thread Desired number of flashback logs per flashback thread  
_flashback_prepare_log Prepare Flashback logs in the background  
_flashback_reclaim_monitor_window n/a Proactive flashback logs reclaimation window  
_flashback_reclaim_speed_up n/a Proactive flashback logs reclaimation speed up  
_flashback_size_based_on_redo Size new flashback logs based on average redo log size  
_flashback_standby_barrier_interval Flashback standby barrier interval in seconds  
_flashback_standby_check_barrier_MIRA n/a Flashback standby check barrier generation in seconds  
_flashback_standby_check_minpfh_MIRA n/a Flashback standby check minimum high fuzzy scn in seconds  
_flashback_stby_support_mira n/a Flashback database on standby supports MIRA  
_flashback_validate_controlfile validate flashback pointers in controlfile for 11.2.0.2 database  
_flashback_verbose_info Print verbose information about flashback database  
_flashback_write_max_loop_limit Flashback writer loop limit before it returns  
_flush_ilm_stats n/a flush ilm stats  
_flush_log_buffer_force n/a Flush log buffer force  
_flush_log_buffer_timeout n/a Flush log buffer wait time in seconds  
_flush_plan_in_awr_sql Plan is being flushed from an AWR flush SQL  
_flush_redo_to_standby Flush redo to standby test event parameter Flush redo to standby test parameter
_flush_undo_after_tx_recovery if TRUE, flush undo buffers after TX recovery  
_fob_dgaalloc n/a Fob structure allocation from Domain Global Area memory  
_fob_ospshare n/a Fob structure and file descriptor sharing between threads with-in an OSP in MPMT environment  
_force_arch_compress Archive Compress all newly created compressed tables  
_force_cloud_on n/a simulate EHCC code path enable in Cloud Database  
_force_containers_subquery n/a force transformation to containers() sub query  
_force_datefold_trunc force use of trunc for datefolding rewrite  
_force_hash_join_spill force hash join to spill to disk  
_force_hsc_compress compress all newly created tables  
_force_java_pool_zero n/a force java pool size to be zero bytes  
_force_local_temp n/a For testing only Forces temporary tablespaces to be LOCAL  
_force_logging_in_upgrade n/a force logging during upgrade mode  
_force_oltp_compress OLTP Compress all newly created compressed tables  
_force_oltp_update_opt OLTP Compressed row optimization on update  
_force_partial_compress n/a Force using OLTP Partial Compression  
_force_rcv_info_ping n/a Force recovery info ping to stdby  
_force_rewrite_enable control new query rewrite features  
_force_slave_mapping_intra_part_loads Force slave mapping for intra partition loads  
_force_standard_compile n/a force compilation of STANDARD  
_force_sys_compress n/a Sys compress  
_force_temp_space_cleanup n/a Force temp space cleanup after PDB close  
_force_temptables_for_gsets executes concatenation of rollups using temp tables  
_force_tmp_segment_loads Force tmp segment loads  
_forced_endian_type n/a Forced endian type of data dictionary  
_fortieth_spare_parameter fortieth spare parameter - boolean fortieth spare parameter - integer
_forty-eighth_spare_parameter n/a forty-eighth spare parameter - integer  
_forty-fifth_spare_parameter n/a forty-fifth spare parameter - integer  
_forty-first_spare_parameter n/a forty-first spare parameter - integer  
_forty-fourth_spare_parameter n/a forty-fourth spare parameter - integer  
_forty-ninth_spare_parameter n/a forty-ninth spare parameter - integer  
_forty-second_spare_parameter n/a forty-second spare parameter - integer  
_forty-seventh_spare_parameter n/a forty-seventh spare parameter - integer  
_forty-sixth_spare_parameter n/a forty-sixth spare parameter - integer  
_forty-third_spare_parameter n/a forty-third spare parameter - integer  
_forwarded_2pc_threshold auto-tune threshold for two-phase commit rate across RAC instances  
_fourteenth_spare_parameter fourteenth spare parameter - integer  
_fourth_spare_parameter fourth spare parameter - integer  
_frame_cache_time number of seconds a cached frame page stay in cache.  
_freeze_kgh_timestamp n/a prevent heap manager timestamp from advancing  
_full_diag_on_rim n/a rim nodes have full DIA* function  
_full_pwise_join_enabled enable full partition-wise join when TRUE  
_fusion_security Fusion Security  
_gas_partition_size n/a Global Address Space Partition Size for each instance  
_gby_hash_aggregation_enabled enable group-by and aggregation using hash scheme  
_gby_onekey_enabled enable use of one comparison of all group by keys  
_gby_vector_aggregation_enabled n/a enable group-by and aggregation using vector scheme  
_gc_affinity_locking if TRUE, enable object affinity  
_gc_affinity_locks if TRUE, get affinity locks  
_gc_affinity_ratio dynamic object affinity ratio  
_gc_anti_lock_ratio n/a dynamic object anti-lock ratio  
_gc_async_memcpy n/a if TRUE, use async memcpy  
_gc_async_receive n/a if TRUE, receive blocks asynchronously  
_gc_async_send n/a if TRUE, send blocks asynchronously  
_gc_bg_merge n/a if TRUE, merge pi buffers in the background  
_gc_blocking_pins n/a if TRUE, record a histogram of blocking pins  
_gc_buckets_per_latch n/a number of hash buckets per latch  
_gc_bypass_readers if TRUE, modifications bypass readers  
_gc_check_bscn if TRUE, check for stale blocks  
_gc_coalesce_recovery_reads if TRUE, coalesce recovery reads  
_gc_cpu_time n/a if TRUE, record the gc cpu time  
_gc_cr_server_read_wait if TRUE, cr server waits for a read to complete  
_gc_defer_ping_index_only if TRUE, restrict deferred ping to index blocks only  
_gc_defer_time how long to defer pings for hot buffers in milliseconds how long to defer pings for hot buffers in microseconds
_gc_delay_ping n/a if TRUE, delay pings to hot blocks  
_gc_delta_push_compression n/a if delta >= K bytes, compress before push  
_gc_delta_push_max_level n/a max delta level for delta push  
_gc_delta_push_objects n/a objects which use delta push  
_gc_disable_s_lock_brr_ping_check if TRUE, disable S lock BRR ping check for lost write protect  
_gc_down_convert_after_keep if TRUE, down-convert lock after recovery  
_gc_drm_windows n/a number of DRM windows  
_gc_dump_remote_lock n/a if TRUE, dump remote lock  
_gc_element_percent global cache element percent  
_gc_enable_cr_bypass n/a if TRUE, enable CR bypass mechanism  
_gc_escalate_bid n/a if TRUE, escalates create a bid  
_gc_fast_index_split_wait n/a fast index split wait usn array size  
_gc_fg_merge if TRUE, merge pi buffers in the foreground  
_gc_fg_spin_time n/a foreground msgq spin time  
_gc_first_dirty_merge n/a if TRUE, merge with a pi after first dirty  
_gc_flush_during_affinity if TRUE, flush during affinity  
_gc_fusion_compression compress fusion blocks if there is free space  
_gc_global_checkpoint_scn if TRUE, enable global checkpoint scn  
_gc_global_cpu n/a global cpu checks  
_gc_global_lru turn global lru off, make it automatic, or turn it on  
_gc_global_lru_touch_count global lru touch count  
_gc_global_lru_touch_time global lru touch time in seconds  
_gc_integrity_checks set the integrity check level  
_gc_interconnect_checksum n/a if TRUE, checksum interconnect blocks  
_gc_keep_recovery_buffers if TRUE, make single instance crash recovery buffers current if TRUE, make recovery buffers current
_gc_keep_undo_recovery_buffers n/a if TRUE, make recovery undo buffers current  
_gc_latches number of latches per LMS process  
_gc_lease_time n/a lease time for rdma reads  
_gc_log_flush if TRUE, flush redo log before a current block transfer  
_gc_long_query_threshold n/a threshold for long running query  
_gc_max_downcvt maximum downconverts to process at one time  
_gc_max_reg_sz n/a maximum length for memory registration  
_gc_maximum_bids n/a maximum number of bids which can be prepared  
_gc_msgq_buffers n/a set number of MSGQ buffers  
_gc_no_fairness_for_clones if TRUE, no fairness if we serve a clone  
_gc_numa_lock_elements n/a if TRUE, numa aware lock element distribution  
_gc_object_queue_max_length maximum length for an object queue  
_gc_override_force_cr if TRUE, try to override force-cr requests  
_gc_partial_cleanout n/a if TRUE, partial cleanout is enabled  
_gc_persistent_read_mostly if TRUE, enable persistent read-mostly locking  
_gc_policy_minimum dynamic object policy minimum activity per minute  
_gc_policy_rm_dirty_percent n/a percent of cache which can be dirty for readmostly  
_gc_policy_time how often to make object policy decisions in minutes  
_gc_read_mostly_flush_check if TRUE, optimize flushes for read mostly objects  
_gc_read_mostly_locking if TRUE, enable read-mostly locking  
_gc_sanity_check_cr_buffers if TRUE, sanity check CR buffers  
_gc_save_cleanout n/a if TRUE, save cleanout to apply later  
_gc_serve_from_flash_cache n/a if TRUE, try to serve a flash cache buffer  
_gc_serve_high_pi_as_current n/a if TRUE, use a higher clone scn when serving a pi  
_gc_skip_undo_disk_read n/a if TRUE, skip the disk read for undo blocks  
_gc_spin_time n/a rdma spin time  
_gc_statistics if TRUE, kcl statistics are maintained global cache statistics level
_gc_temp_affinity n/a if TRUE, enable global temporary affinity  
_gc_trace_blocking_pins n/a if TRUE, trace blocking pins  
_gc_trace_freelist_empty n/a if TRUE, dump a trace when we run out of lock elements  
_gc_transfer_ratio dynamic object read-mostly transfer ratio  
_gc_try_to_skip_imc_flush n/a if TRUE, try to skip an imc populate flush  
_gc_undo_affinity if TRUE, enable dynamic undo affinity if TRUE, enable undo affinity
_gc_undo_block_disk_reads if TRUE, enable undo block disk reads  
_gc_undo_rdma_read n/a if TRUE, rdma read of undo blocks is enabled  
_gc_use_cr n/a if TRUE, allow CR pins on PI and WRITING buffers  
_gc_vector_read if TRUE, vector read current buffers  
_gc_xmem_rdma n/a if TRUE, xmem blocks rdma read is enabled  
_gcr_cpu_consumer_dump_level n/a level of process dump performed for CPU consumers  
_gcr_cpu_min_free n/a minimum amount of free CPU to flag an anomaly  
_gcr_cpu_min_hard_limit n/a hard limit for min free CPU to flag high CPU  
_gcr_css_group_large n/a size of large CSS group above which query/update disabled  
_gcr_css_group_query_boost n/a allowed number of serial multiple queries  
_gcr_css_group_try_lock_delay n/a minimum delay between group locking attempts, secs  
_gcr_css_group_update2_interval n/a interval between CSS group updates when busy, secs  
_gcr_css_group_update_interval n/a interval between CSS group updates, secs  
_gcr_css_use_2group_lock n/a if FALSE, GCR will not try to lock 2 CSS groups at the same time  
_gcr_dump_cpu_consumers n/a if TRUE, enable dumps of CPU consumers  
_gcr_enable_high_cpu_kill if TRUE, GCR may kill foregrounds under high load  
_gcr_enable_high_cpu_rm if TRUE, GCR may enable a RM plan under high load  
_gcr_enable_high_cpu_rt if TRUE, GCR may boost bg priority under high load  
_gcr_enable_high_memory_kill n/a if TRUE, GCR may kill foregrounds under high memory load  
_gcr_enable_kill_inst_diags n/a if TRUE, GCR will collect OS diags prior to kill instance  
_gcr_enable_new_drm_check n/a if FALSE, revert to old drm load metric  
_gcr_enable_statistical_cpu_check n/a if FALSE, revert to old cpu load metric  
_gcr_high_cpu_threshold minimum amount of CPU process must consume to be kill target  
_gcr_high_memory_threshold n/a minimum amount of Memory process must consume to be kill target  
_gcr_max_rt_procs n/a maximum number of RT DLM processes allowed by GCR  
_gcr_mem_min_free n/a minimum amount of free memory to flag an anomaly  
_gcr_min_free_memory_hard_limit n/a hard limit for minimum free memory,for high memory systems  
_gcr_tick n/a duration of time tick used by state machine, centisecs  
_gcr_use_css if FALSE, GCR wont register with CSS nor use any CSS feature  
_gcs_cluster_flash_cache_mode n/a cluster flash cache mode  
_gcs_cluster_flash_cache_persistency n/a Enable cluster flash cache persistency (FALSE = disable (default), TRUE = enable  
_gcs_cr_master_ping_remote n/a if TRUE, cr request from master will ping the remote holder  
_gcs_crslave_check_time n/a time interval to check for load on cr slaves in seconds  
_gcs_crslave_longq_cnt n/a long queue time threshold for cr slave  
_gcs_crslave_longq_us n/a long queue time for cr slave in microseconds  
_gcs_disable_imc_preallocation n/a disable preallocation for imc memory requirement in RAC  
_gcs_disable_remote_handles disable remote client/shadow handles  
_gcs_disable_skip_close_remastering if TRUE, disable skip close optimization in remastering  
_gcs_dynamic_sga n/a if TRUE, enable dynamic cache fusion resources in runtime  
_gcs_dynamic_slaves n/a if TRUE, it enables dynamic adjustment of the number of gcs slaves  
_gcs_enable_private_iterator n/a Enable private iterator for GCS locks  
_gcs_fast_reconfig if TRUE, enable fast reconfiguration for gcs locks  
_gcs_flash_cache_mode n/a flash cache mode  
_gcs_freelists_alloc_percent n/a initial allocation of gcs freelists percentage of max usage  
_gcs_integrity_checks n/a cache fusion integrity check level  
_gcs_latches number of gcs resource hash latches to be allocated per LMS process  
_gcs_lsr_frequency n/a frequency of invoking lock state resolution in seconds  
_gcs_min_cr_slaves n/a if non zero, it enables the minimum number of gcs slaves  
_gcs_min_slaves n/a if non zero, it enables the minimum number of gcs slaves  
_gcs_partial_open_mode n/a partial open cache fusion service in reconfiguration  
_gcs_pkey_history number of pkey remastering history  
_gcs_process_in_recovery if TRUE, process gcs requests during instance recovery  
_gcs_recoverable_asserts n/a if non-zero, enable recoverable assert resolution  
_gcs_res_hash_buckets n/a number of gcs resource hash buckets to be allocated  
_gcs_res_per_bucket number of gcs resource per hash bucket  
_gcs_reserved_resources n/a allocate the number of reserved resources in reconfiguration  
_gcs_reserved_shadows n/a allocate the number of reserved shadows in reconfiguration  
_gcs_resources number of gcs resources to be allocated  
_gcs_shadow_locks number of pcm shadow locks to be allocated number of gcs shadow locks to be allocated
_gcs_testing GCS testing parameter  
_gcs_trace_bucket n/a TRUE: use GCS trace bucket and trace LOW by default, FALSE: use default bucket but trace only if enabled  
_gcs_trace_bucket_size n/a size of the GCS trace bucket in bytes (format: "LMS:<k>-RMV:<l>-CRV:<m>-DBW:<n>")  
_gcs_track_reliable_block_sends n/a if TRUE, track block lost on reliable interconnect  
_gdr_clear_active_only n/a GDR: Clear active ranges only  
_gdr_clear_inactive_only n/a GDR: Clear inactive ranges only  
_gdr_control_flags n/a gdr control flags  
_gds_allow_nullkey n/a allow the use of nullable shard key columns  
_gds_chunk_num n/a number of chunks in sharding environment  
_gds_lddlid n/a the id of the last executed DDL query  
_gds_max_chunk_num n/a max chunk_num used in sharding environment  
_gds_shardgroup_id n/a shardgroup database is in  
_generalized_pruning_enabled controls extensions to partition pruning for general predicates  
_ges_dd_debug if 1 or higher enables GES deadlock detection debug diagnostics  
_ges_default_lmds n/a default lmds for enqueue hashing  
_ges_designated_master designated master for GES and GCS resources  
_ges_diagnostics if TRUE enables GES diagnostics  
_ges_diagnostics_asm_dump_level systemstate level on global enqueue diagnostics blocked by ASM  
_ges_direct_free if TRUE, free each resource directly to the freelist  
_ges_direct_free_res_type string of resource types(s) to directly free to the freelist  
_ges_dump_open_locks n/a if TRUE, dump open locks for the LCK process during shutdown  
_ges_fggl DLM fg grant lock on/off  
_ges_freeable_res_chunk_free n/a if TRUE, free dynamic resource chunks which are freeable  
_ges_freeable_res_chunk_free_interval n/a time interval for freeing freeable dynamic resource chunks  
_ges_gather_res_reuse_stats n/a if TRUE, gather resource reuse statistics  
_ges_hash_groups n/a enqueue hash table groups  
_ges_health_check if greater than 0 enables GES system health check  
_ges_lmd_mapping n/a enqueue to lmd mapping  
_ges_mseq_demo n/a demo mseq wrap scenarios (dflt is 0)  
_ges_nres_divide n/a how to divide number of enqueue resources among hash tables  
_ges_num_blockers_to_kill number of blockers to be killed for hang resolution  
_ges_resource_memory_opt enable different level of ges res memory optimization  
_ges_server_processes n/a number of background global enqueue server processes  
_ges_vbfreelists n/a number of valueblock freelists (will be adjusted to power of 2)  
_global_hang_analysis_interval_secs the interval at which global hang analysis is run  
_globaldict_analyzer_pct n/a Maximum percentage of unique values in analyzer phase for GD  
_globaldict_chain_limit n/a Chain limit for global dictionary  
_globaldict_check n/a Dictionary checking  
_globaldict_chunk_minalloc n/a Force minimum chunk allocation size  
_globaldict_dbg n/a Global dictionary debug modes  
_globaldict_enable n/a Enable segment dictionary  
_globaldict_max_gdsize n/a Maximum number of entries in a Global dictionary  
_globaldict_reprobe_limit n/a Reprobe limit for global dictionary  
_globaldict_use_ndv n/a Use NDV for sizing global dictionary, if available  
_globalindex_pnum_filter_enabled enables filter for global index with partition extended syntax  
_grant_read_instead_of_select n/a grant read privilege instead of select wherever applicable  
_grant_secure_role Disallow granting of SR to NSR Disallow granting of SR to other SR or NSR
_grant_unlimited_tablespace_role n/a Allow UNLIMITED TABLESPACE privilege grant to database roles  
_group_membership_bucket_batch_size n/a ksimpoll group membership bucket batch size  
_group_membership_bucket_scan_timeout n/a ksimpoll group membership bucket scan timeout  
_group_membership_entries_per_bucket n/a ksimpoll group membership entries per bucket  
_group_partition_data_for_impdp_ok n/a data pump import allows DATA_OPTIONS=GROUP_PARTITION_DATA  
_groupby_nopushdown_cut_ratio groupby nopushdown cut ratio  
_groupby_orderby_combine groupby/orderby don't combine threshold  
_gs_anti_semi_join_allowed enable anti/semi join for the GS query  
_gsm n/a GSM descriptions  
_gsm_config_vers n/a version of gsm config  
_gsm_cpu_thresh n/a CPU busy threshold  
_gsm_drv_interval n/a metric derived values interval  
_gsm_max_instances_per_db n/a maximum number of instances per database in gsm cloud  
_gsm_max_num_regions n/a maximum number of regions in gsm cloud  
_gsm_pool_size n/a Global Shared Memory size  
_gsm_region_list n/a List of GSM Regions  
_gsm_srlat_thresh n/a Single block read latency threshold  
_gsm_svcrgnmax n/a Maximum Service x Region statistics  
_gsm_thresh_respct n/a threshold resource percentage  
_gsm_thresh_zone n/a threshold zone  
_gwm_autoons_ha_subscription n/a AutoONS HA notification subscription string  
_gwm_autoons_rlb_subscription n/a AutoONS RLB notification subscription string  
_gwm_database_flags n/a GWM Database Flags  
_gwm_db_unique_name n/a gsm db_unique_name name  
_gwm_int_dbnum n/a GWM internal db id  
_gwm_spare2 n/a gsm spare 2  
_gwm_spare3 n/a gsm spare 3  
_gws_cache_version n/a the shard/catalog cache version.  
_gws_deployed n/a the shardb/catalog has been deployed for sharding.  
_gws_sharding_method n/a Sharding method used (system-managed/user-defined/composite)  
_hang_allow_resolution_on_single_nonrac n/a Hang Management allow resolution on single non-RAC instances  
_hang_analysis_num_call_stacks hang analysis num call stacks  
_hang_appl_issue_session_threshold n/a Hang Management application issue session threshold  
_hang_application_hang_resolution_enabled n/a Hang Management application related hang resolution enabled  
_hang_asm_hang_resolution_enabled n/a Hang Management ASM hang resolution enabled  
_hang_base_file_count Number of trace files for the normal base trace file  
_hang_base_file_space_limit File space limit for current normal base trace file  
_hang_blocked_session_percent_threshold n/a Hang Manager fast-track blocked session percent threshold  
_hang_bool_spare1 Hang Management 1 Hang Management bool 1
_hang_bool_spare2 n/a Hang Management bool 2  
_hang_cross_boundary_hang_detection_enabled n/a Hang Management Cross Boundary detection  
_hang_cross_cluster_hang_detection_enabled n/a Hang Management Cross Cluster detection  
_hang_deadlock_resolution_enabled n/a Hang Management deadlock resolution enabled  
_hang_delay_resolution_for_libcache Hang Management delays hang resolution for library cache  
_hang_detection_enabled Hang Management detection  
_hang_detection_interval n/a Hang Management detection interval in seconds  
_hang_enable_nodeeviction n/a Enable Hang Manager node eviction  
_hang_enable_processstate n/a Enable Process State Dumping  
_hang_ft_min_degrading_samples_percent_threshold n/a Hang Manager fast-track minimum degrading samples threshold  
_hang_hang_analyze_output_hang_chains if TRUE hang manager outputs hang analysis hang chains  
_hang_hang_blocked_session_delta_percent_threshold n/a Hang Manager hang's blocked session delta percent threshold  
_hang_hiload_promoted_ignored_hang_count Hang Management high load or promoted ignored hang count  
_hang_hiprior_session_attribute_list Hang Management high priority session attribute list  
_hang_hs_hang_metrics_enabled n/a Hang Management Hang Specific hang metrics enabled  
_hang_hung_session_ewarn_percent n/a Hang Management hung session early warning percentage  
_hang_ignore_hngmtrc_interval n/a Hang Management ignore hang metric dependent hang interval  
_hang_ignored_hang_count Hang Management ignored hang count  
_hang_ignored_hangs_interval Time in seconds ignored hangs must persist after verification  
_hang_int_spare1 n/a Hang Management int 1  
_hang_int_spare2 Hang Management 2 Hang Management int 2
_hang_intersecting_chains_scanning_enabled n/a Hang Management intersecting chains scanning is allowed  
_hang_log_important_hangs_to_alert n/a Hang Management log important hangs to alert log  
_hang_log_io_hung_sessions_to_alert n/a Hang Management log sessions hung on IO to alert log  
_hang_log_verified_hangs_to_alert Hang Management log verified hangs to alert log  
_hang_long_wait_time_threshold Long session wait time threshold in seconds  
_hang_lws_file_count Number of trace files for long waiting sessions  
_hang_lws_file_space_limit File space limit for current long waiting session trace file  
_hang_max_instance_allow_node_eviction n/a Hang Manager maximum instance count to allow node eviction  
_hang_max_session_hang_time n/a Hang Management maximum session hang time in seconds  
_hang_metrics_older_bitmap_threshold n/a Hang Management Hang Metric older bitmap threshold  
_hang_metrics_recent_bitmap_threshold n/a Hang Management Hang Metric recent bitmap threshold  
_hang_monitor_archiving_related_hang_interval Time in seconds ignored hangs must persist after verification  
_hang_msg_checksum_enabled enable hang graph message checksum  
_hang_promote_process_termination_interval n/a Hang Management promote process termination interval in seconds  
_hang_resolution_allow_archiving_issue_termination Hang Management hang resolution allow archiving issue termination  
_hang_resolution_confidence_promotion Hang Management hang resolution confidence promotion  
_hang_resolution_global_hang_confidence_promotion Hang Management hang resolution global hang confidence promotion  
_hang_resolution_percent_hung_sessions_threshold n/a Hang Manager hang resolution percent hung sessions threshold  
_hang_resolution_percent_hung_sessions_threshold2 n/a Hang Manager hang resolution percent hung sessions threshold2  
_hang_resolution_policy Hang Management hang resolution policy  
_hang_resolution_promote_process_termination Hang Management hang resolution promote process termination  
_hang_resolution_scope Hang Management hang resolution scope  
_hang_root_ha_phase_trigger_time n/a Hang Management root HA phase trigger time  
_hang_running_in_lrg n/a Hang Management running in lrg  
_hang_short_stacks_output_enabled if TRUE hang manager outputs short stacks  
_hang_signature_list_match_output_frequency Hang Signature List matched output frequency  
_hang_singleton_detection_rw_enabled n/a Hang Management singleton detection enabled for read-write  
_hang_singleton_resolution_rw_enabled n/a Hang Management singleton resolution enabled for read-write  
_hang_statistics_collection_interval Hang Management statistics collection interval in seconds  
_hang_statistics_collection_ma_alpha Hang Management statistics collection moving average alpha  
_hang_statistics_high_io_percentage_threshold Hang Management statistics high IO percentage threshold  
_hang_terminate_session_replay_enabled n/a Hang Management terminates sessions allowing replay  
_hang_trace_interval n/a Hang Management trace interval in seconds  
_hang_verification_interval Hang Management verification interval in seconds  
_hard_protection if TRUE enable H.A.R.D specific format changes  
_hash_join_enabled enable/disable hash join  
_hash_multiblock_io_count number of blocks hash join will read/write at once  
_hashops_prefetch_size n/a maximum no of rows whose relevant memory locations are prefetched  
_hb_redo_interval n/a generic heartbeat redo frequency  
_hb_redo_msg_interval BOC HB redo message interval in ms  
_hcs_disable_all_prune n/a prune hierarchies pinned to ALL level  
_hcs_disable_av_jback_opt n/a optimize analytic view query joinback  
_hcs_disable_bd_agg_opt n/a optimize base data aggregation  
_hcs_disable_calc_dtm_to_out_opt n/a apply move calc determined hier to output hier optimization  
_hcs_disable_calc_opt n/a calc optimize  
_hcs_disable_cell_qry_atr_prune_opt n/a apply attribute prune optimization to cell query  
_hcs_disable_cell_qry_lvl_prune_opt n/a apply level prune optimization to cell query  
_hcs_disable_cell_qry_meas_prune_opt n/a apply measure prune optimization to cell query  
_hcs_disable_cell_qry_mv_cache_opt n/a apply mv cache optimization to cell query  
_hcs_disable_cell_qry_no_calc_nav_opt n/a apply no calc navigation optimization to cell query  
_hcs_disable_cell_qry_no_out_data_opt n/a apply no output data optimization to cell query  
_hcs_disable_cell_qry_tmpls n/a no cell query templates for optimization  
_hcs_disable_col_prune_optz n/a skip column pruning optimization on generated SQL  
_hcs_disable_dup_nav_calc_opt n/a duplicate navigation calc optimize  
_hcs_disable_dup_src_tbl_opt n/a apply duplicate src table optimization  
_hcs_disable_exists_distinct n/a no exists distinct  
_hcs_disable_filter_hierarchies n/a filter hierarchies in hcs queries  
_hcs_disable_fltr_below_fltr_star_opt n/a apply filter below filtered star optimization  
_hcs_disable_fltr_fact_opt n/a apply filtered fact optimization  
_hcs_disable_fltr_hier_star_opt n/a apply filtered hierarchy star optimization  
_hcs_disable_hier_join_map_nonnull n/a no hier join map non null  
_hcs_disable_hord_in_oby_prune n/a prune levels if HIER_ORDER referenced only in ORDER BY  
_hcs_disable_inline_tmpl_opt n/a apply inline single ref top blocks optimization to cell query  
_hcs_disable_jback_opt_for_hord_in_oby n/a optimize analytic view joinback for HIER_ORDER  
_hcs_disable_latest_compat_check n/a skip compatibility check for latest compatible version  
_hcs_disable_level_ord n/a prune away MAX(MAX(...)) around level order columns  
_hcs_disable_level_prune n/a perform all level pruning  
_hcs_disable_level_prune_calc_data_joins n/a perform level pruning for joins across calc data  
_hcs_disable_level_prune_gby n/a perform level pruning in group by  
_hcs_disable_level_prune_hier_join n/a perform level pruning from hierarchy joins  
_hcs_disable_level_prune_hier_qry n/a perform level pruning from hierarchy queries  
_hcs_disable_level_prune_hierarchize n/a level prune hierarchize  
_hcs_disable_level_prune_in_qry n/a perform level pruning from level IN conditions  
_hcs_disable_level_prune_mbr_lookup n/a perform level pruning in member lookup queries  
_hcs_disable_level_prune_vis_lvs n/a perform level pruning from visible leaves  
_hcs_disable_materialize n/a add materialize to result cache hint  
_hcs_disable_mdx_cache_hint n/a generate hcs query mdx cache hints  
_hcs_disable_mv_rewrite_check n/a skip MV rewrite check when generating for ANALYTIC VIEW cache  
_hcs_disable_obj_cache_name n/a Do not include the object number in an aggregate or level cache  
_hcs_disable_opt_cell_qry n/a optimize cell query  
_hcs_disable_opt_estimate n/a generate opt estimate hints  
_hcs_disable_pushed_preds_in_gen_sql n/a push sql query predicates into hierarchy targets  
_hcs_disable_result_cache_hint n/a generate hcs query result cache hints  
_hcs_disable_rm_like_withs_optz n/a skip like WITH element removal optimization on generated SQL  
_hcs_disable_rm_unused_withs_optz n/a skip unused WITH element removal optimization on generated SQL  
_hcs_disable_rmv_unref_top_opt n/a apply remove unref top blocks optimization to cell query  
_hcs_disable_smooth_descendants n/a perform smooth descendants  
_hcs_disable_smooth_drill_all n/a perform smooth drill all  
_hcs_disable_smooth_hierarchize n/a perform hierarchize smoothing  
_hcs_disable_smooth_remove_all n/a smooth and remove ALL member  
_hcs_disable_sp_jback_opt n/a optimize single parent joinback  
_hcs_disable_tgt_depths_opt n/a apply target depths optimization  
_hcs_disable_unnest n/a disable unnest hint  
_hcs_disable_vector_transform n/a disable vector transform hint  
_hcs_disable_view_merge n/a disable view merge  
_hcs_disable_vis_totals n/a generate visual totals  
_hcs_enable_aggr_opt_estimate n/a apply OPT_ESTIMATE hint to aggregation queries  
_hcs_enable_all_distinct n/a use distinct instead of rownum=1  
_hcs_enable_auto_av_cache n/a use dynamic across all levels cache  
_hcs_enable_dynamic_cache n/a enable/disable av cache DYNAMIC definition  
_hcs_enable_expose_with_expr n/a expose internal with_expression  
_hcs_enable_in_mem_cdt_hint n/a add hint opt_param('_in_memory_cdt', 'off')  
_hcs_enable_mdx_cache_name_col n/a add column for mdx cache name  
_hcs_enable_mdx_mv_gen n/a enable mdx mv cache SQL generation  
_hcs_enable_mdx_sleep_after_pin n/a sleep after pinning MDX caches  
_hcs_enable_mem_trck n/a enable memory tracking  
_hcs_enable_multi_parent_gen n/a generate hcs query using multi-parent aggregation  
_hcs_enable_no_expand n/a enable no expand hint  
_hcs_enable_parallel_hint n/a include parallel hint in cell query  
_hcs_enable_parse_auto_av_cache n/a allow parsing of dynamic across all levels cache  
_hcs_enable_pred_push n/a enable optimizer AV predicate pushing via reparse  
_hcs_enable_unsupported_calcs n/a enable unsupported calcs  
_hcs_logging n/a analytic view logging  
_hcs_query_hint n/a query hint  
_hcs_stats_max_card n/a maximum value for stats cardinality  
_heap_dump_timeout n/a timeout in seconds for heap dump  
_heartbeat_config n/a TDE heartbeat configuration parameter  
_heartbeat_period_multiplier n/a Multiplier for the period of the TDE heartbeat  
_heatmap_format_1block n/a heatmap related - to be used by oracle dev only  
_heatmap_min_maxsize n/a Internal testing only  
_heur_deadlock_resolution_secs the heuristic wait time per node for deadlock resolution  
_high_intrinsic_scn_growth_alert n/a high intrinsic SCN growth rate alert time in minutes  
_high_priority_node_instcnt_cap n/a disable high priority lms when node inst count exceeds cap  
_high_priority_processes High Priority Process Name Mask  
_high_server_threshold n/a high server thresholds  
_high_threshold_delta n/a high threshold delta  
_highest_priority_processes n/a Highest Priority Process Name Mask  
_highres_drift_allowed_sec allowed highres timer drift for VKTM  
_highthreshold_undoretention high threshold undo_retention in seconds  
_hj_bit_filter_threshold hash-join bit filtering threshold (0 always enabled)  
_hm_analysis_oradebug_sys_dump_level the oradebug system state level for hang manager hang analysis  
_hm_xm_enabled n/a If TRUE, DIA0 allows message exchanges across DB/ASM boundary  
_hpk_compression_range n/a hpk compression range  
_hpk_project_cost_weighting n/a hpk project cost weighting  
_hpk_throughput_range n/a hpk throughput range  
_hugetlbfs_mount_point_for_sga n/a HugeTLBFS mount point to be used  
_hw_watchpoint_on n/a is the HW watchpointing feature turned on?  
_hwm_sync_threshold HWM synchronization threshold in percentage  
_iat_frequency_short n/a Use short interval (5 minutes) for inactive account time job  
_idl_conventional_index_maintenance n/a enable conventional index maintenance for insert direct load  
_idle_session_kill_enabled enables or disables resource manager session idle limit checks  
_idxrb_rowincr proportionality constant for dop vs. rows in index rebuild  
_ignore_desc_in_index ignore DESC in indexes, sort those columns ascending anyhow  
_ignore_edition_enabled_for_EV_creation ignore schema's edition-enabled status during EV creation  
_ignore_fg_deps ignore fine-grain dependencies during invalidation  
_ilm_mem_limit n/a percentage of the max shared pool heat-map can use - internal  
_ilmflush_stat_limit n/a ILM flush statistics limit - Internal testing only  
_ilmset_stat_limit n/a ILM set statistics limit - Internal testing only  
_ilmstat_memlimit n/a Percentage of shared pool for use by ILM Statistics  
_imado_diagtasks_log_period n/a IM-ADO diagnostic tasks logging period (in seconds)  
_imado_diagtasks_purge_period n/a IM diagnostic tasks purge older than X days  
_imado_disable_bg n/a Disable AIM background task for testing  
_imado_evict_sf n/a AIM evict safety factor  
_imado_mem_threshold n/a Memory threshold percent for AIM action  
_imado_optim_algo n/a Optimization algorithm for AIM  
_imado_optimize_period n/a IM-store optimize period for AIM (in minutes)  
_imado_sysaux_usage_limit n/a SYSAUX usage percent limit for storing AIM diagnostics  
_imado_verification n/a AIM verification state  
_image_redo_gen_delay Image redo generation delay in centi-seconds (direct write mode)  
_immediate_commit_propagation if TRUE, propagate commit SCN immediately  
_improved_outerjoin_card improved outer-join cardinality calculation  
_improved_row_length_enabled enable the improvements for computing the average row length  
_imr_active Activate Instance Membership Recovery feature  
_imr_avoid_double_voting Avoid device voting for CSS reconfig during IMR  
_imr_check_css_incarnation_number n/a IMR verify the global consistency of CSS incarnation number  
_imr_controlfile_access_wait_time IMR controlfile access wait time in seconds  
_imr_dd_slave_wait_time n/a IMR max time LMON will wait for slave response in seconds  
_imr_device_type Type of device to be used by IMR  
_imr_disk_voting_interval Maximum wait for IMR disk voting (seconds)  
_imr_diskvote_implementation IMR disk voting implementation method  
_imr_evicted_member_kill IMR issue evicted member kill after a wait  
_imr_evicted_member_kill_wait IMR evicted member kill wait time in seconds  
_imr_extra_reconfig_wait Extra reconfiguration wait in seconds  
_imr_highload_threshold IMR system highload threshold  
_imr_largest_hub_membership n/a IMR will derive the largest hub membership from available votes  
_imr_max_reconfig_delay Maximum Reconfiguration delay (seconds)  
_imr_mount_retry_wait_time n/a IMR mount retry wait time (seconds)  
_imr_non_blocking_device_driver n/a Use the Non Blocking IMR Device Driver Implementation  
_imr_remount_retry_wait_time n/a IMR remount retry wait time in (seconds)  
_imr_rim_mount_device n/a Enable rim instances to mount IMR device driver  
_imr_rr_holder_kill_time n/a IMR max time instance is allowed to hold RR lock in seconds  
_imr_splitbrain_res_wait Maximum wait for split-brain resolution (seconds)  
_imr_systemload_check Perform the system load check during IMR  
_imtxn_table_enable n/a is In-Memory Txn Table cache enabled  
_imtxn_table_flags n/a In-Memory Txn Table cache flags  
_imtxn_table_max_inc_per_slt n/a In-Memory Txn Table number of incarnations per slot  
_imtxn_table_max_slts_per_seg n/a In-Memory Txn Table Slots per Undo Segment  
_imtxn_table_max_undo_segs n/a In-Memory Txn Table Max Undo Segments in Cache  
_imtxnrma_table_enable n/a is In-Memory RMA Txn Table cache enabled  
_imu_pools in memory undo pools  
_in_memory_cdt n/a In Memory CDT  
_in_memory_cdt_maxpx n/a Max Parallelizers allowed for IMCDT  
_in_memory_cleanup_wait_timeout n/a Tiemout for IMCDT cleanup waiting for end of scan  
_in_memory_memory_threshold n/a In Memory CDT memory threshold  
_in_memory_tbs_search FALSE - disable fast path for alter tablespace read only  
_in_memory_ts_only n/a In Memory CDT use temp segment only  
_in_memory_undo Make in memory undo for top level transactions  
_increase_lms_process n/a modifying this hidden parameter, will modify the numberof lms process by the valueof this parameter  
_incremental_purge_size n/a Setting for AWR Incremental Purge Size  
_incremental_recovery_ckpt_min_batch minimum number of writes for incremental recovery ckpt every second  
_index_alert_key_not_found n/a dumps 8102 error to alert log file  
_index_join_enabled enable the use of index joins  
_index_load_analysis_frequency n/a index load compression analysis frequency  
_index_load_buf_oltp_over_retry n/a index load buf and comp oltp over-estimation retry  
_index_load_buf_oltp_sacrifice_pct n/a index load buf oltp sacrifice pct  
_index_load_buf_oltp_under_pct n/a index load buf and comp oltp under-estimation pct  
_index_load_last_leaf_comp n/a index load write last leaf compression threshold  
_index_load_min_key_count n/a index load min key count for first compression  
_index_max_inc_trans_pct n/a max itl expand percentage soft limit during index insert  
_index_partition_large_extents Enables large extent allocation for partitioned indices  
_index_partition_shrink_opt n/a enable alter index modify partition shrink optimization  
_index_prefetch_factor index prefetching factor  
_index_scan_check_skip_corrupt check and skip corrupt blocks during index scans  
_index_scan_check_stopkey check stopkey during index range scans  
_index_split_chk_cancel n/a index insert split check cancel  
_indexable_con_id n/a indexing of CON_ID column enabled for X$ tables  
_indoubt_pdb_transactions_force_outcome n/a commit force or rollback force during undo mode switch  
_inet_cluster_interconnects n/a InetTable Cluster Interconnects  
_influx_scn_wait_timeout n/a active dataguard influx scn wait time in centiseconds  
_influx_scn_waits n/a active dataguard influx scn maximum waits  
_init_granule_interval number of granules to process for deferred cache  
_init_sql_file File containing SQL statements to execute upon database creation  
_inject_simulated_error_period n/a if non-zero, inject IO error once every param_value times  
_inject_startup_fault inject fault in the startup code  
_inline_sql_in_plsql inline SQL in PL/SQL  
_inmemory_64k_percent n/a percentage of in-memory area for 64k pools  
_inmemory_adg_batched_flush n/a If true, batched flush is performed  
_inmemory_adg_journal_quota n/a If true, throttled mining is performed under space pressure  
_inmemory_adg_parallel_flush n/a If true, parallel flush is performed  
_inmemory_adg_periodic_sort n/a If true, periodic sort is performed  
_inmemory_adg_quiesce_timeout n/a timeout for getting ZQ enq  
_inmemory_analyzer_optimize_for n/a inmemory analyzer optimize for  
_inmemory_auto_distribute n/a If true, enable auto distribute  
_inmemory_autodist_2safe n/a If true, enable auto distribute with 2safe  
_inmemory_buffer_waittime n/a wait interval for one SMU or IMCU to be freed  
_inmemory_check_prot_meta n/a If true, marks SMU area read only to prevent stray writes  
_inmemory_checksum n/a If true, checksums in-memory area to detect stray writes  
_inmemory_crclone_buffer_size n/a In-memory CR Clone buffer size  
_inmemory_crclone_min_clones n/a In-memory CR Clone minimum number of clones  
_inmemory_crclone_min_space_percent n/a In-memory CR Clone minimum space percentage  
_inmemory_crclone_threshold_rows n/a In-memory CR Clone threshold rows  
_inmemory_cu_checksum n/a If true, checksums CU to detect stray writes  
_inmemory_cudrop_timeout n/a maximum wait time for IMCU to be freed during drop  
_inmemory_dbg_scan n/a In-memory scan debugging  
_inmemory_default_flags n/a Default flags based on inmemory_clause_default  
_inmemory_default_new n/a Force in-memory on new tables  
_inmemory_default_svc n/a Default In-Memory distribute service type for new tables  
_inmemory_default_svcname n/a Default In-Memory distribute service name for new tables  
_inmemory_delta_population n/a Control Delta IMCU population  
_inmemory_direct_reads n/a direct-reads for SMUs population repopulation  
_inmemory_disable_alter_imco_cycle n/a in-memory disable alter imco cycle  
_inmemory_disable_selective_vircols n/a disable selective columns for VCs/IMEs  
_inmemory_distribute_ondemand_timeout n/a On demand timeout for redistribute  
_inmemory_distribute_timeout n/a If true, enable auto distribute with 2safe  
_inmemory_drcancel_cu_percent n/a IMCU percentage threshold to switch from DR to BC  
_inmemory_dynamic_scan_disable_threshold n/a Inmemory dynamic scan disable threshold  
_inmemory_dynamic_scans n/a Enable IM Dynamic Scans  
_inmemory_dynamic_scans_analyze_batch_size n/a Inmemory dynamic scan analyze batch size  
_inmemory_dynamic_scans_batch_size n/a Number of steady state outstanding tasks  
_inmemory_dynamic_scans_dbg n/a Inmemory dynamic scans debug  
_inmemory_enable_population_verify n/a verify in-memory population  
_inmemory_enable_readonly n/a Enable Inmemory on read only DB instance  
_inmemory_enable_stat_alert n/a dump in-memory stats in alert log file  
_inmemory_enable_sys n/a enable in-memory on system tablespace with sys user  
_inmemory_exclto_timeout n/a maximum wait time to pin SMU for cleanout  
_inmemory_expression_count n/a IME number of expressions to lookup from the ESS  
_inmemory_expressions_area_percent n/a percentage of in-memory area for IMEUs  
_inmemory_expressions_mark_unused n/a Mark cold IME expressions unused instead of no inmemory  
_inmemory_ext_roarea n/a size in bytes of inmemory rw extension area  
_inmemory_ext_rwarea n/a size in bytes of inmemory rw extension area  
_inmemory_external_table n/a Enable inmemory extern table  
_inmemory_faststart_control_flags n/a in-memory faststart control flags  
_inmemory_force_fs n/a in-memory faststart force  
_inmemory_force_fs_tbs n/a in-memory faststart force tablespace  
_inmemory_force_fs_tbs_size n/a in-memory faststart force tablespace size  
_inmemory_force_non_engineered n/a force non-engineered systems in-memory behavior on RAC  
_inmemory_format_compatible n/a In-memory format compatibility parameter  
_inmemory_fs_blk_inv_blk_percent n/a in-memory faststart CU invalidation threshold(blocks)  
_inmemory_fs_blk_inv_blkcnt n/a in-memory faststart CU invalidation threshold(blocks)  
_inmemory_fs_dmlverify_read_ahead_cnt n/a in-memory faststart dmlverify read ahead count  
_inmemory_fs_enable n/a in-memory faststart enable  
_inmemory_fs_enable_blk_lvl_inv n/a in-memory faststart enable block level invalidation  
_inmemory_fs_nodml n/a in-memory faststart assumes no dmls while populating  
_inmemory_fs_prune_pct n/a in-memory faststart out of mem prune percent  
_inmemory_fs_raise_error n/a in-memory faststart raise error  
_inmemory_fs_tbsmaxsz n/a in-memory faststart tablespace maximum size  
_inmemory_fs_verify n/a in-memory faststart verify  
_inmemory_fsdw_cnt n/a in-memory faststart defer writes per cycle  
_inmemory_fsdw_enable n/a in-memory faststart deferwrite enable  
_inmemory_fsdw_inline n/a in-memory faststart deferwrite inline  
_inmemory_fsdw_maxcnt n/a in-memory faststart max defer writes per cycle  
_inmemory_fsdw_maxmem n/a in-memory faststart max defer writes memory cap  
_inmemory_fsdw_on_populate n/a in-memory faststart deferwrite on populate  
_inmemory_fsdw_penalty_threshold n/a in-memory faststart deferwrite penalty threshold  
_inmemory_fsdw_populate_threshold_multiplier n/a in-memory faststart deferwrite populate threshold multiplier  
_inmemory_fsdw_priority_penalty_percent n/a In-memory faststart defer write percent priority for penalized  
_inmemory_fsdw_priority_population_percent n/a In-memory faststart defer write percent priority for population  
_inmemory_fsdw_priority_repopulation_percent n/a In-memory faststart defer write percent priority for repopulation  
_inmemory_fsdw_schedlrtm n/a in-memory faststart defer write scheduler cycle (sec)  
_inmemory_fsdw_scheduler_dedicated n/a in-memory faststart defer write dedicated scheduler  
_inmemory_fsdw_task_timeout n/a in-memory faststart defer writes task timeout (sec)  
_inmemory_fsdw_threshold n/a In-memory faststart defer write minimum interval (millisec)  
_inmemory_granule_size n/a In-memory granule size  
_inmemory_grpcolinv_buffer_size n/a In-memory grpcolinv buffer size  
_inmemory_grpcolinv_granularity n/a In-memory grpcolinv blks per colmap  
_inmemory_hwm_expand_percent n/a max blks percent can exceed in hwmimcu  
_inmemory_hwm_expansion n/a If 0, the highwatermark CU is dropped when expanded  
_inmemory_imco_cycle n/a IMCO cycle in seconds (sleep period)  
_inmemory_imcu_align n/a Enforce 8M IMCU alignment  
_inmemory_imcu_populate_minbytes n/a minimum free space in IMA for populating IMCU  
_inmemory_imcu_source_analyze_bytes n/a number of source analyze bytes per IMCU  
_inmemory_imcu_source_blocks n/a number of source blocks per IMCU  
_inmemory_imcu_source_extents n/a number of source extents per IMCU  
_inmemory_imcu_source_maxbytes n/a IMCU maximum source size in bytes  
_inmemory_imcu_source_minbytes n/a number of minimum source bytes per IMCU  
_inmemory_imcu_target_bytes n/a IMCU target size in bytes  
_inmemory_imcu_target_maxrows n/a IMCU maximum target number of rows  
_inmemory_imcu_target_rows n/a IMCU target number of rows  
_inmemory_ime_increpop_threshold n/a Invalidation threshold for IME incremental repopulation  
_inmemory_incremental_repopulation n/a If true, incremental repopulation of IMCU will be attempted  
_inmemory_invalidate_cursors n/a In-memory populate enable cursor invalidations  
_inmemory_journal_check n/a Depending on value does one of the DML verifications  
_inmemory_journal_cla_stride n/a inmemory journal format cla stride  
_inmemory_journal_format n/a inmemory journal format options  
_inmemory_journal_row_logging n/a If true, log the entire row into the in-memory journal  
_inmemory_journal_scan n/a inmemory journal scan enable  
_inmemory_journal_scan_format n/a If true, the set journal format will be used for scan  
_inmemory_lock_for_smucreate n/a take object lock during smu creation  
_inmemory_log_level n/a in-memory log level  
_inmemory_max_delta n/a Inmemory max number of deltas per CU  
_inmemory_max_expressions_table n/a IME maximum number of SYS_IME VCs in a table  
_inmemory_max_populate_retry n/a IM populate maximum number of retry  
_inmemory_max_queued_tasks n/a Maximum queued populating tasks on the auxiliary queue  
_inmemory_memprot n/a enable or disable memory protection for in-memory  
_inmemory_min_delta_blocks n/a Inmemory minimum blocks per delta  
_inmemory_min_delta_rows n/a Inmemory minimum rows per delta  
_inmemory_min_ima_defersize n/a Defer in-memory area allocation beyond this size  
_inmemory_num_hash_latches n/a Maximum number of latches for IM buffers  
_inmemory_parallel_load_ext n/a Parallel load inmemory extern table  
_inmemory_partrowlock_threshold n/a Number of committed rows that stay not cleaned out  
_inmemory_patch_background_blocks n/a In-memory SMU patch threshold blocks to start background tasks  
_inmemory_patch_commit_path n/a If true, enable the SMU patching from DML path  
_inmemory_patch_threshold_blocks n/a In-memory SMU patch threshold blocks  
_inmemory_pct_inv_blocks_invalidate_imcu n/a In-memory percentage invalid blocks for IMCU invalidation  
_inmemory_pct_inv_rows_invalidate_imcu n/a In-memory percentage invalid rows for IMCU invalidation  
_inmemory_pga_per_server n/a minimum pga needed per inmemory populate server  
_inmemory_pin_hist_mode n/a settings for IM pinned buffer history  
_inmemory_populate_fg n/a populate in foreground  
_inmemory_populate_wait n/a wait for population to complete  
_inmemory_populate_wait_max n/a maximum wait time in seconds for segment populate  
_inmemory_prefer_xmem_memcompress n/a Prefer to store tables with given memcompress levels in xmem  
_inmemory_prefer_xmem_priority n/a Prefer to store tables with given priority levels in xmem  
_inmemory_prefix_encode_dsbs n/a Prefix-encode the DSB-dictionary  
_inmemory_prepopulate n/a Enable inmemory populate by IMCO  
_inmemory_prepopulate_fg n/a Force prepopulate of in-memory segment in foreground  
_inmemory_private_journal_maxexts n/a Max number of extents per PJ  
_inmemory_private_journal_numbkts n/a Number of priv jrnl ht bkts  
_inmemory_private_journal_numgran n/a Number of granules per HT node  
_inmemory_private_journal_quota n/a quota for transaction in-memory private journals  
_inmemory_private_journal_sharedpool_quota n/a quota for transaction in-memory objects  
_inmemory_pruning n/a In-memory pruning  
_inmemory_query_check n/a In-memory query checking  
_inmemory_query_fetch_by_rowid n/a In-memory fetch-by-rowid enabled  
_inmemory_query_scan n/a In-memory scan enabled  
_inmemory_relimcusz_thresh n/a in-memory relative imcusz thresh for direct reads  
_inmemory_repopulate_disable n/a disable In-memory repopulate  
_inmemory_repopulate_flags n/a In-memory repopulate decision flags  
_inmemory_repopulate_invalidate_rate_percent n/a In-memory repopulate invalidate rate percent  
_inmemory_repopulate_optimize n/a If true, itl transfer will be attempted during repopulation of IMCU  
_inmemory_repopulate_priority_scale_factor n/a In-memory repopulate priority threshold scale factor  
_inmemory_repopulate_priority_threshold_block n/a In-memory repopulate priority threshold block  
_inmemory_repopulate_priority_threshold_row n/a In-memory repopulate priority threshold row  
_inmemory_repopulate_threshold_blocks n/a In-memory repopulate threshold number of modified blocks  
_inmemory_repopulate_threshold_blocks_percent n/a In-memory repopulate threshold blocks invalid percentage  
_inmemory_repopulate_threshold_mintime n/a In-memory repopulate minimum interval (millisec)  
_inmemory_repopulate_threshold_mintime_factor n/a In-memory repopulate minimum interval (N*timetorepop)  
_inmemory_repopulate_threshold_rows n/a In-memory repopulate threshold number of modified rows  
_inmemory_repopulate_threshold_rows_percent n/a In-memory repopulate threshold rows invalid percentage  
_inmemory_repopulate_threshold_scans n/a In-memory repopulate threshold number of scans  
_inmemory_retention_time n/a maximum retention time of imcu after repopulation  
_inmemory_rows_check_interrupt n/a Number of rows buffered before interrupt check  
_inmemory_scan_invalid_percent n/a Inmemory scan invalid percentage  
_inmemory_scan_override n/a In-memory scan override  
_inmemory_servers_throttle_pgalim_percent n/a In-memory populate servers throttling pga limit percentage  
_inmemory_shared_journal_maxexts n/a Max number of extents per SJ  
_inmemory_shared_journal_minexts_repop n/a min number of extents per SJ to trigger repop  
_inmemory_small_segment_threshold n/a In-memory small segment threshold (must be larger for in-memory)  
_inmemory_smu_patch_options n/a Inmemory SMU patching options  
_inmemory_strdlxid_timeout n/a max time to determine straddling transactions  
_inmemory_subcu_histsize n/a In-memory subCU Histogram size  
_inmemory_subcusize n/a In-memory subCU size  
_inmemory_suppress_vsga_ima n/a Suppress inmemory area in v$sga  
_inmemory_test_verification n/a In-memory verification testing  
_inmemory_transaction_options n/a in-memory transaction performance options  
_inmemory_trickle_repopulate n/a Enable inmemory trickle repopulate  
_inmemory_trickle_repopulate_fg n/a Trickle Repopulate in the Foreground  
_inmemory_trickle_repopulate_min_interval n/a IMCO Trickle Repopulate Interval  
_inmemory_trickle_repopulate_threshold_dirty_ratio n/a IMCO Trickle Repopulate threshold dirty ratio  
_inmemory_txn_checksum n/a checksum for SMUs and private journals  
_inmemory_txnpjrnl_debug n/a txn priv jrnl debugging parameter  
_inmemory_validate_fetch n/a If true, validate single-row fetch between in-memory and disk  
_inmemory_vector_encode_override n/a Populate and use DSBs for Vector Encode columns  
_inmemory_waitinvis_count n/a in-memory waitinvisible retry count  
_inmemory_xmem_size n/a size in bytes of in-memory xmem area  
_inplace_update_retry inplace update retry for ora1551  
_inquiry_retry_interval if greater than 0 enables inquiry retry after specified interval  
_insert_enable_hwm_brokered during parallel inserts high water marks are brokered  
_inst_locking_period period an instance can retain a newly acquired level1 bitmap  
_instance_dbnest_name n/a Instance dbNest Name  
_instance_recovery_bloom_filter_fprate n/a Allowable false positive percentage [0-100]  
_instance_recovery_bloom_filter_size n/a Bloom filter size (in num of bits) used during claim phase  
_instant_file_create n/a enable instant file creation on sparse media  
_interconnect_checksum n/a if TRUE, checksum interconnect blocks  
_intra_cdb_dblink n/a enable intra CDB implicit dblink  
_intrapart_pdml_enabled Enable intra-partition updates/deletes  
_intrapart_pdml_randomlocal_enabled Enable intra-partition updates/deletes with random local dist  
_invalidate_upon_revoke n/a Invalidate all dependent objects upon revoke  
_io_internal_test I/O internal testing parameter  
_io_osd_param OSD specific parameter  
_io_outlier_threshold n/a Latency threshold for io_outlier table  
_io_resource_manager_always_on io resource manager always on  
_io_shared_pool_size Size of I/O buffer pool from SGA  
_io_slaves_disabled Do not use I/O slaves  
_io_statistics if TRUE, ksfd I/O statistics are collected  
_iocalibrate_init_ios iocalibrate init I/Os per process  
_iocalibrate_max_ios iocalibrate max I/Os per process  
_ioq_fanin_multiplier IOQ miss count before a miss exception  
_ior_serialize_fault inject fault in the ior serialize code  
_iorm_tout IORM scheduler timeout value in msec  
_ios_root_directory n/a IOS default root directory  
_ioslave_batch_count Per attempt IOs picked  
_ioslave_issue_count IOs issued before completion check  
_ipc_aggr_limit_percentage n/a KSIPC memory as a percentage of PGA aggregate limit  
_ipc_config_opts_dyn n/a Dyn config for ipclw startup  
_ipc_config_opts_stat n/a static config for ipclw startup  
_ipc_fail_network Simulate cluster network failer  
_ipc_switch_reconfig_needed n/a to trigger a ipc switch reconfiguration  
_ipc_test_failover Test transparent cluster network failover  
_ipc_test_mult_nets simulate multiple cluster networks  
_ipddb_enable Enable IPD/DB data collection  
_iut_enable n/a Control Index usage tracking  
_iut_max_entries n/a Maximum Index entries to be tracked  
_iut_stat_collection_type n/a Specify Index usage stat collection type  
_job_queue_interval Wakeup interval in seconds for job queue co-ordinator  
_k2q_latches number of k2q latches  
_ka_allow_reenable n/a reenability of kernel accelerator service after disable  
_ka_compatibility_requirement n/a kernel accelerator compatibility operation requirement  
_ka_doorbell n/a kernel accelerator doorbell mode  
_ka_enabled n/a Enable/disable kernel accelerator  
_ka_grant_policy n/a KA grant policy to favor fusion grant, make it automatic, or favor KA  
_ka_locks_per_sector n/a locks per sector in kernel accelerator  
_ka_max_wait_delay n/a KA maximum amount of time before forcing OSD wait call  
_ka_mode n/a kernel accelerator mode  
_ka_msg_reap_count n/a maximum number of KA messages to receive and process per wait  
_ka_msg_wait_count n/a KA maximum number of requests to retrieve per OSD wait  
_ka_pbatch_messages n/a kernel accelerator perform pbatch messages  
_ka_scn_accel_shrmem n/a KA SCN accelerate shr memory  
_ka_scn_enabled n/a KA SCN processing enabled  
_ka_scn_use_ka_msgs n/a KA SCN use KA type messages  
_kcbl_assert_reset_slot n/a assert slot state in kcblResetSlot  
_kcfis_automem_level Set auto memory management control for kcfis memory allocation  
_kcfis_block_dump_level Smart IO block dump level  
_kcfis_byteswap_opt_disabled n/a Don't use byte swapping optimization on the storage cell  
_kcfis_caching_enabled enable kcfis intra-scan session caching  
_kcfis_cell_passthru_dataonly Allow dataonly passthru for smart scan  
_kcfis_cell_passthru_enabled Do not perform smart IO filtering on the cell  
_kcfis_cell_passthru_fromcpu_enabled Enable automatic passthru mode when cell CPU util is too high  
_kcfis_cellcache_disabled n/a Don't use cellcache rewrite optimization on the storage cell  
_kcfis_celloflsrv_passthru_enabled Enable offload server usage for passthru operations  
_kcfis_celloflsrv_usage_enabled Enable offload server usage for offload operations  
_kcfis_control1 Kcfis control1  
_kcfis_control2 Kcfis control2  
_kcfis_control3 Kcfis control3  
_kcfis_control4 Kcfis control4  
_kcfis_control5 Kcfis control5  
_kcfis_control6 Kcfis control6  
_kcfis_disable_platform_decryption Don't use platform-specific decryption on the storage cell  
_kcfis_dump_corrupt_block Dump any corrupt blocks found during smart IO  
_kcfis_fast_response_enabled Enable smart scan optimization for fast response (first rows)  
_kcfis_fast_response_initiosize Fast response - The size of the first IO in logical blocks  
_kcfis_fast_response_iosizemult Fast response - (next IO size = current IO size * this parameter)  
_kcfis_fast_response_threshold Fast response - the number of IOs after which smartIO is used  
_kcfis_fastfileinit_disabled Don't use ffi during file creation  
_kcfis_fault_control Fault Injection Control  
_kcfis_io_prefetch_size Smart IO prefetch size for a cell  
_kcfis_ioreqs_throttle_enabled Enable Smart IO requests throttling  
_kcfis_kept_in_cellfc_enabled Enable usage of cellsrv flash cache for kept objects  
_kcfis_large_payload_enabled enable large payload to be passed to cellsrv  
_kcfis_max_cached_sessions Sets the maximum number of kcfis sessions cached  
_kcfis_max_out_translations Sets the maximum number of outstanding translations in kcfis  
_kcfis_nonkept_in_cellfc_enabled Enable use of cellsrv flash cache for non-kept objects  
_kcfis_oss_io_size KCFIS OSS I/O size  
_kcfis_pmem_enabled n/a RDMA Persistent Memory support enabled  
_kcfis_qm_prioritize_sys_plan n/a Prioritize Quaranitine Manager system plan  
_kcfis_qm_user_plan_name n/a Quaranitine Manager user plan name  
_kcfis_rdbms_blockio_enabled Use block IO instead of smart IO in the smart IO module on RDBMS  
_kcfis_read_buffer_limit KCFIS Read Buffer (per session) memory limit in bytes  
_kcfis_spawn_debugger Decides whether to spawn the debugger at kcfis initialize  
_kcfis_stats_level sets kcfis stats level  
_kcfis_storageidx_diag_mode Debug mode for storage index on the cell  
_kcfis_storageidx_disabled Don't use storage index optimization on the storage cell  
_kcfis_storageidx_set_membership_disabled n/a Don't use set membership optimization on the storage cell  
_kcfis_storageidx_xtss_disabled n/a Don't use storage index optimization on the storage cell for XTSS  
_kcfis_test_control1 kcfis tst control1  
_kcfis_trace_bucket_size KCFIS tracing bucket size in bytes  
_kcfis_trace_level n/a sets kcfis tracing level  
_kcfis_work_set_appliances n/a Working Set of appliances in a KCFIS session  
_kcfis_xtgran_prefetch_count n/a External Table Smart Scan granule prefetch count  
_kcl_commit n/a if TRUE, call kjbcommit  
_kcl_conservative_log_flush n/a if TRUE, conservatively log flush before CR serving  
_kcl_debug if TRUE, record le history  
_kcl_index_split if TRUE, reject pings on blocks in middle of a split  
_kd_dbg_control n/a kernel data generic control  
_kd_rows_chk n/a enable or disable row block check  
_kd_symtab_chk enable or disable symbol table integrity block check  
_kdbl_enable_post_allocation allocate dbas after populating data buffers  
_kdfip_bufl_nbkt n/a memopt w buffers list buckets  
_kdfip_cmap_nbkt n/a memopt w chunk map buckets  
_kdfip_debug n/a memopt w debug  
_kdfip_drain_sleeps n/a memopt w drain coord sleep count  
_kdfip_elem_nclatch n/a memopt w chunkmap elem child latches  
_kdfip_flush_nrows n/a memopt w flush num rows  
_kdfip_flush_rowsz n/a memopt w flush row size  
_kdfip_flush_rowtm n/a memopt w flush time  
_kdfip_iga_bufsz n/a memopt w write buffer size  
_kdfip_iga_maxsz n/a memopt w max global area size  
_kdfip_iga_minsz n/a memopt w min global area size  
_kdfip_par_flush n/a memopt w parallel flush  
_kdfip_trace n/a memopt w tracing on-off  
_kdfs_fix_control n/a dbfs fix_control  
_kdfs_timer_dmp n/a dbfs timers  
_kdfs_trace n/a dbfs trace level  
_kdfs_trace_size n/a size of the uts buffer for generic traces  
_kdi_avoid_block_checking avoid index block checking on sensitive opcodes  
_kdic_segarr_sz size threshold for segmented arrays for seg_info_kdicctx  
_kdis_reject_level b+tree level to enable rejection limit  
_kdis_reject_limit #block rejections in space reclamation before segment extension  
_kdis_reject_ops enable rejection heuristic for branch splits  
_kdis_split_xid_prune n/a prune xids during an index split  
_kdizoltp_uncompsentinal_freq n/a kdizoltp uncomp sentinal frequency  
_kdkv_fg_drop_memopt n/a hashindex foreground drop  
_kdkv_fg_no_memopt n/a hashindex foreground cleanup  
_kdkv_fg_populate n/a hashindex foreground populate  
_kdkv_fg_repopulate n/a hashindex foreground repopulate  
_kdkv_force_fastpath n/a kdkv fast path on-off  
_kdkv_force_samehash n/a kdkv hash to same bucket on-off  
_kdkv_index_lossy n/a hashindex lossiness on-off  
_kdkv_index_relocate n/a hashindex relocation on-off  
_kdkv_indexinvalid n/a objd and rdba based index invalidation  
_kdkv_trace n/a kdkv tracing on-off  
_kdlf_read_flag n/a kdlf read flag  
_kdli_STOP_bsz undocumented parameter for internal use only  
_kdli_STOP_dba undocumented parameter for internal use only  
_kdli_STOP_fsz undocumented parameter for internal use only  
_kdli_STOP_nio undocumented parameter for internal use only  
_kdli_STOP_tsn undocumented parameter for internal use only  
_kdli_allow_corrupt allow corrupt filesystem_logging data blocks during read/write  
_kdli_buffer_inject use buffer injection for CACHE [NO]LOGGING lobs  
_kdli_cache_inode cache inode state across calls  
_kdli_cache_read_threshold minimum lob size for cache->nocache read (0 disables heuristic)  
_kdli_cache_size maximum #entries in inode cache  
_kdli_cache_verify verify cached inode via deserialization  
_kdli_cache_write_threshold minimum lob size for cache->nocache write (0 disables heuristic)  
_kdli_cacheable_length minimum lob length for inode cacheability  
_kdli_checkpoint_flush do not invalidate cache buffers after write  
_kdli_dbc override db_block_checking setting for securefiles  
_kdli_delay_flushes delay flushing cache writes to direct-write lobs  
_kdli_descn_adj n/a coalesce extents with deallocation scn adjustment  
_kdli_flush_cache_reads flush cache-reads data blocks after load  
_kdli_flush_injections flush injected buffers of CACHE NOLOGGING lobs before commit  
_kdli_force_cr force CR when reading data blocks of direct-write lobs  
_kdli_force_cr_meta force CR when reading metadata blocks of direct-write lobs  
_kdli_force_storage force storage settings for all lobs  
_kdli_full_readahead_threshold maximum lob size for full readahead  
_kdli_full_vll n/a materialize full vll lobmap for reads  
_kdli_icache_entries n/a size of itree cache  
_kdli_inject_assert inject asserts into the inode  
_kdli_inject_batch buffer injection batch size [1, KCBNEWMAX]  
_kdli_inject_crash inject crashes into the inode  
_kdli_inline_xfm allow inline transformed lobs  
_kdli_inode_preference inline inode evolution preference (data, headless, lhb)  
_kdli_inplace_overwrite maximum inplace overwrite size (> chunksize)  
_kdli_itree_entries #entries in lhb/itree blocks (for testing only)  
_kdli_memory_protect trace accesses to inode memory outside kdli API functions  
_kdli_mts_so n/a use state objects in shared server for asyncIO pipelines  
_kdli_oneblk allocate chunks as single blocks  
_kdli_preallocation_mode preallocation mode for lob growth  
_kdli_preallocation_pct percentage preallocation [0 .. inf) for lob growth  
_kdli_ralc_length n/a lob length threshold to trigger rounded allocations  
_kdli_ralc_rounding n/a rounding granularity for rounded allocations  
_kdli_rci_lobmap_entries #entries in RCI lobmap before migration to lhb  
_kdli_readahead_limit shared/cached IO readahead limit  
_kdli_readahead_strategy shared/cached IO readahead strategy  
_kdli_recent_scn use recent (not dependent) scns for block format/allocation  
_kdli_reshape reshape an inode to inline or headless on length truncation  
_kdli_safe_callbacks invoke inode read/write callbacks safely  
_kdli_sio_async asynchronous shared IO  
_kdli_sio_backoff use exponential backoff when attempting SIOP allocations  
_kdli_sio_bps maximum blocks per IO slot  
_kdli_sio_dop degree-of-parallelism in the SIO keep pool  
_kdli_sio_fbwrite_pct percentage of buffer used for direct writes in flashback-db  
_kdli_sio_fgio reap asynchronous IO in the foreground  
_kdli_sio_fileopen shared IO fileopen mode: datasync vs nodatasync vs async  
_kdli_sio_flush enable shared IO pool operations  
_kdli_sio_free free IO buffers when not in active use  
_kdli_sio_min_read shared IO pool read threshold  
_kdli_sio_min_write shared IO pool write threshold  
_kdli_sio_nbufs maximum #IO buffers to allocate per session  
_kdli_sio_niods maximum #IO descriptors to allocate per session  
_kdli_sio_on enable shared IO pool operations  
_kdli_sio_pga use PGA allocations for direct IO  
_kdli_sio_pga_top PGA allocations come from toplevel PGA heap  
_kdli_sio_strategy shared IO strategy: block vs. extent  
_kdli_sio_write_pct percentage of buffer used for direct writes  
_kdli_small_append_redo n/a detect and use redo optimizations for small appends  
_kdli_small_cache_limit size limit of small inode cache  
_kdli_sort_dbas sort dbas during chunkification  
_kdli_space_cache_limit maximum size of the space cache in #blocks maximum #blocks in per-segment space cache
_kdli_space_cache_segments n/a #segments in space cache  
_kdli_squeeze compact lobmap extents with contiguous dbas  
_kdli_timer_dmp dump inode timers on session termination  
_kdli_timer_trc trace inode timers to uts/tracefile  
_kdli_trace inode trace level  
_kdli_vll_direct use skip-navigation and direct-positioning in vll-domain  
_kdlu_max_bucket_size UTS kdlu bucket size  
_kdlu_max_bucket_size_mts UTS kdlu bucket size for mts  
_kdlu_trace_layer UTS kdlu per-layer trace level  
_kdlu_trace_session n/a UTS session dump  
_kdlu_trace_system UTS system dump  
_kdlw_enable_ksi_locking enable ksi locking for lobs  
_kdlw_enable_write_gathering enable lob write gathering for sql txns  
_kdlwp_flush_threshold WGC flush threshold in bytes  
_kdlxp_cmp_subunit_size size of compression sub-unit in bytes  
_kdlxp_dedup_flush_threshold deduplication flush threshold in bytes  
_kdlxp_dedup_hash_algo secure hash algorithm for deduplication - only on SecureFiles  
_kdlxp_dedup_inl_pctfree deduplication pct size increase by which inlining avoided  
_kdlxp_dedup_prefix_threshold deduplication prefix hash threshold in bytes  
_kdlxp_dedup_wapp_len deduplication length to allow write-append  
_kdlxp_lobcmpadp enable adaptive compression - only on SecureFiles  
_kdlxp_lobcmplevel Default securefile compression  
_kdlxp_lobcmprciver Default securefile compression map version  
_kdlxp_lobcompress enable lob compression - only on SecureFiles  
_kdlxp_lobdeduplicate enable lob deduplication - only on SecureFiles  
_kdlxp_lobdedupvalidate enable deduplicate validate - only on SecureFiles  
_kdlxp_lobencrypt enable lob encryption - only on SecureFiles  
_kdlxp_mincmp minimum comp ratio in pct - only on SecureFiles  
_kdlxp_mincmplen minimum loblen to compress - only on SecureFiles  
_kdlxp_minxfm_size minimum transformation size in bytes  
_kdlxp_no_dedup_on_insert n/a disable deduplication for new inserts of deduplicated lobs  
_kdlxp_spare1 deduplication spare 1  
_kdlxp_uncmp lob data uncompressed - only on SecureFiles  
_kdlxp_xfmcache enable xfm cache - only on SecureFiles  
_kdt_buffering control kdt buffering for conventional inserts  
_kdtgsp_retries max number of retries in kdtgsp if space returns same block  
_kdu_array_depth array update retry recursion depth limits  
_kdz_clear_analysis_percent n/a percentage to clear dictionary analysis  
_kdz_hcc_flags Miscellaneous HCC flags  
_kdz_hcc_track_upd_rids Enable rowid tracking during updates  
_kdz_pcode_flags n/a pcode flags  
_kdz_pred_nrows n/a Number of rows to predicate at a time in kdzt  
_kdz_proj_nrows n/a Number of rows to project at a time in kdzt  
_kdzk_enable_init_trace n/a Enable kdzk initialization tracing  
_kdzk_load_specialized_library n/a Flags for loading HPK specialized library  
_kdzk_specialized_library_name n/a HPK specialized library name  
_kdzk_trace_level n/a HPK trace level  
_kebm_autotask_nstrikes n/a kebm # strikes to auto suspend an autotask  
_kebm_max_parallel_autotasks n/a maximum parallel autotask executions per instance  
_kebm_nstrikes kebm # strikes to auto suspend an action  
_kebm_sanity_check_enabled n/a Enable/disable MMON Action Sanity Check  
_kebm_suspension_time kebm auto suspension time in seconds  
_kecap_cache_size n/a Workload Replay INTERNAL parameter used to set memory usage in Application Replay  
_keep_19907_during_recovery keep until scn within recovery target check in recovery  
_keep_remote_column_size remote column size does not get modified  
_kernel_message_network_driver kernel message network driver  
_kes_parse_model SQL Tune/SPA KES Layer Parse Model control parameter  
_kewm_simulate_oer4031 n/a Simulate OER(4031) for one or more Metric Groups  
_kewm_trace_sga n/a Enable/Disable Metrics SGA Allocation Tracing  
_key_vector_alternate_dictionary n/a enables or disables key vector alternate dictionary generation  
_key_vector_create_pushdown_threshold n/a minimum grouping keys for key vector create pushdown  
_key_vector_double_enabled n/a enables or disables key vector support for binary_double  
_key_vector_force_alternate_dictionary n/a stops key vector alternate dictionary from being disabled  
_key_vector_join_pushdown_enabled n/a enables or disables key vector join push down support  
_key_vector_max_size n/a maximum key vector size (in KB)  
_key_vector_offload n/a controls key vector offload to cells  
_key_vector_predicate_enabled n/a enables or disables key vector filter predicate pushdown  
_key_vector_predicate_threshold n/a selectivity pct for key vector filter predicate pushdown  
_key_vector_shared_dgk_ht n/a allows shared DGK hash table  
_key_vector_timestamp_enabled n/a enables or disables key vector support for timestamp  
_kffmap_hash_size size of kffmap_hash table  
_kffmlk_hash_size n/a size of kffmlk_hash table  
_kffmop_chunks number of chunks of kffmop's  
_kffmop_hash_size size of kffmop_hash table  
_kffmspw_hash_size n/a size of kffmspw_hash table  
_kfi_software_patchmap n/a value of patchmap for software  
_kfi_version_patchmap n/a pairs of version:patchmap for testing  
_kfm_disable_set_fence disable set fence calls and revert to default (process fence)  
_kgh_free_list_min_effort n/a typical number of free list chunks to visit  
_kgh_restricted_subheaps n/a number of subheaps in heap restricted mode  
_kgh_restricted_trace n/a trace level for heap dump-restricted mode  
_kghdsidx_count max kghdsidx count  
_kgl_bucket_count Library cache hash table bucket count (2^_kgl_bucket_count * 256)  
_kgl_cap_hd_alo_stacks n/a capture stacks for library cache handle allocation  
_kgl_cluster_lock Library cache support for cluster lock  
_kgl_cluster_lock_read_mostly Library cache support for cluster lock read mostly optimization  
_kgl_cluster_pin Library cache support for cluster pins  
_kgl_debug Library cache debugging  
_kgl_fixed_extents fixed extent size for library cache memory allocations  
_kgl_hash_collision Library cache name hash collision possible  
_kgl_heap_size extent size for library cache heap 0  
_kgl_hot_object_copies Number of copies for the hot object  
_kgl_iterator_action n/a Action to take if we dereference in-flux state in kgl iterator  
_kgl_kqr_cap_so_stacks capture stacks for library and row cache state objects  
_kgl_large_heap_assert_threshold n/a maximum heap size before KGL raises an internal error  
_kgl_large_heap_warning_threshold maximum heap size before KGL writes warnings to the alert log  
_kgl_latch_count number of library cache latches  
_kgl_message_locks RAC message lock count  
_kgl_min_cached_so_count Minimum cached SO count. If > 1 can help find SO corruptions  
_kgl_time_to_wait_for_locks time to wait for locks and pins before timing out  
_kglsim_maxmem_percent max percentage of shared pool size to be used for KGL advice  
_kgsb_threshold_size threshold size for base allocator  
_kgx_latches # of mutex latches if CAS is not supported.  
_kill_controlfile_enqueue_blocker enable killing controlfile enqueue blocker on timeout  
_kill_diagnostics_timeout timeout delay in seconds before killing enqueue blocker  
_kill_enqueue_blocker if greater than 0 enables killing enqueue blocker  
_kill_java_threads_on_eoc Kill Java threads and do sessionspace migration at end of call  
_kill_session_dump Process dump on kill session immediate  
_kjac_force_outcome_current_session n/a if TRUE, enable to run force outcome on the current session  
_kjdd_call_stack_dump_enabled n/a Enables printing of short call stack with the WFG  
_kjdd_wfg_dump_cntrl n/a To control the way Wait-For_Graph is dumped  
_kjltmaxgt record latch requests that takes longer than this many us  
_kjltmaxht record latch reqeust that are held longer than this many us  
_kjlton track DLM latch usage on/off  
_kkfi_trace trace expression substitution  
_kkpo_ctb_allow_vpd n/a allow VPD predicates in recursive SQL under CREATE TABLE  
_kkpogpi_nocpy n/a attempt to avoid partition metadata copy in kkpogpi  
_kks_cached_parse_errors KKS cached parse errors  
_kks_free_cursor_stat_pct n/a percentage of cursor stats buckets to scan on each load, in 1/10th of a percent  
_kks_obsolete_dump_threshold n/a Number of parent cursor obsoletions before dumping cursor  
_kks_parse_error_warning n/a Parse error warning  
_kktAllowInsteadOfDDLTriggeronDDL n/a Oracle internal parameter to allow instead of DDL triggers on specified DDLs  
_kokli_cache_size Size limit of ADT Table Lookup Cache  
_kokln_current_read Make all LOB reads for this session 'current' reads  
_kolfuseslf allow kolf to use slffopen  
_kqdsn_cpu_digits n/a number of cpu digits in scalable sequence  
_kqdsn_instance_digits n/a number of instance digits in scalable sequence  
_kql_clientlocks_enabled n/a clients allocating DLM memory  
_kql_subheap_trace tracing level for library cache subheap level pins  
_kqr_enable_conservative_logging n/a log kgl/kqr objects conservativly in redo  
_kqr_optimistic_reads optimistic reading of row cache objects  
_kra_cfile_compaction n/a controlfile record compation  
_kra_trace_buffer_size n/a size of I/O trace buffer  
_krb_check_osd_block_endianess n/a Check OSD Block Endianess  
_krb_trace_buffer_size n/a size of per-process I/O trace buffer  
_krbabr_trace_buffer_size n/a size of I/O trace buffer  
_krc_trace_buffer_size n/a size of I/O trace buffer  
_krpm_trace_buffer_size n/a size of per-process mira trace buffer  
_ksb_restart_clean_time process uptime for restarts  
_ksb_restart_policy_times process restart policy times in seconds  
_ksd_test_param KSD test parmeter  
_ksdx_charset_ratio ratio between the system and oradebug character set  
_ksdxdocmd_default_timeout_ms default timeout for internal oradebug commands  
_ksdxdocmd_enabled if TRUE ksdxdocmd* invocations are enabled  
_ksdxw_cini_flg ksdxw context initialization flag  
_ksdxw_nbufs ksdxw number of buffers in buffered mode  
_ksdxw_num_pgw number of watchpoints on a per-process basis  
_ksdxw_num_sgw number of watchpoints to be shared by all processes  
_ksdxw_stack_depth number of PCs to collect in the stack when watchpoint is hit  
_ksdxw_stack_readable n/a dump readable stack when watchpoint is hit  
_kse_alt_stack_sig_syms n/a The number of top symbols used for the alternate stack signature  
_kse_auto_core n/a generate core for unexpected SIGSEGV/SIGBUS  
_kse_die_timeout amount of time a dying process is spared by PMON (in centi-secs)  
_kse_pc_table_size kse pc table cache size  
_kse_signature_entries number of entries in the kse stack signature cache  
_kse_signature_limit number of stack frames to cache per kse signature  
_kse_snap_ring_disable n/a set to TRUE or FALSE to disable or enable error logging  
_kse_snap_ring_record_stack should error snap ring entries show a short stack trace  
_kse_snap_ring_size ring buffer to debug internal error 17090  
_kse_snap_ring_suppress n/a List of error numbers to suppress in the snap error history  
_kse_ssnt n/a disables symbol translation in short stacks to make them faster  
_kse_trace_int_msg_clear enables soft assert of KGECLEAERERROR is cleares an interrupt message  
_ksfd_fob_pct n/a percentage of FOB state objects allocation  
_ksfd_verify_write verify asynchronous writes issued through ksfd  
_ksgl_ltchs_held_ctxt n/a Average number of latches held per KSGL context  
_ksgl_max_dyn_latches n/a Maximum number of KSGL dynamic latches  
_ksi_clientlocks_enabled if TRUE, DLM-clients can provide the lock memory  
_ksi_pdb_checks n/a if TRUE (default), do consistency checks on PDB IDs  
_ksi_trace KSI trace string of lock type(s)  
_ksi_trace_bucket memory tracing: use ksi-private or rdbms-shared bucket  
_ksi_trace_bucket_size size of the KSI trace bucket KSI trace bucket size in bytes (format: "LCK1:<n>-REST:<m>")
_ksim_time_monitor n/a ksim layer time dynamic monitor and statistics  
_ksipc_aspc_enabled n/a is KSIPC Address Space Support Enabled  
_ksipc_cksum_level n/a Configure IPC Checksum level for clients on a per transport basis  
_ksipc_common_sl n/a Configure a single SL value for all client/transport combinations  
_ksipc_efchecks n/a Check HCA/OS version for Exafusion  
_ksipc_group_sz n/a Configure KSIPC group size  
_ksipc_heap_extent n/a KSIPC Heap Extent Size  
_ksipc_ipclw_cksum_enable n/a Configure IPCLW cksum  
_ksipc_ipclw_conn_dump n/a Configure IPCLW connection dump rate  
_ksipc_ipclw_enable_param n/a ipclw parameter enablement  
_ksipc_ipclw_library_path n/a over-ride default location of lib ipclw  
_ksipc_ipclw_spare_param1 n/a ksipc ipclw spare parameter 1  
_ksipc_ipclw_spare_param2 n/a ksipc ipclw spare parameter 2  
_ksipc_ipclw_spare_param3 n/a ksipc ipclw spare parameter 3  
_ksipc_ipclw_spare_param4 n/a ksipc ipclw spare parameter 4  
_ksipc_ipclw_spare_param5 n/a ksipc ipclw spare parameter 5  
_ksipc_ipclw_spare_param6 n/a ksipc ipclw spare parameter 6  
_ksipc_ipclw_spare_param7 n/a ksipc ipclw spare parameter 7  
_ksipc_ipclw_spare_param8 n/a ksipc ipclw spare parameter 8  
_ksipc_libipc_path n/a over-ride default location of libipc  
_ksipc_loopback_ips n/a KSIPC Loopback IP addresses  
_ksipc_mga_segment_size n/a KSIPC MGA Segment Size  
_ksipc_mode n/a ksipc mode  
_ksipc_service_level n/a Configure service level for clients on a per transport basis  
_ksipc_service_mask n/a KSIPC Service Mask  
_ksipc_skgxp_compat_library_path n/a over-ride default location of lib skgxp compat  
_ksipc_skgxp_library_path n/a over-ride default location of lib skgxp  
_ksipc_spare_param1 n/a ksipc spare param 1  
_ksipc_spare_param2 n/a ksipc spare param 2  
_ksipc_spare_param3 n/a ksipc spare param 3  
_ksipc_spare_param4 n/a ksipc spare param 4  
_ksipc_spare_param5 n/a ksipc spare param 5  
_ksipc_trace_bucket n/a memory tracing: use ksipc-private or rdbms-shared bucket  
_ksipc_trace_bucket_size n/a KSIPC trace bucket size in bytes (format: "IPC0:<n>-REST:<m>")  
_ksipc_wait_flags n/a tune ksipcwait  
_ksipc_window_size n/a Configure IPC Windowing Value for clients on a per transport basis  
_ksipcsnsrv n/a Configure Shared Nothing Server Name  
_ksm_post_sga_init_notif_delay_secs seconds to delay instance startup at sga initialization (post)  
_ksm_pre_sga_init_notif_delay_secs seconds to delay instance startup at sga initialization (pre)  
_ksm_shared_pool_stats_minsz n/a min value for printing stats  
_ksm_shared_pool_stats_num_pdb n/a number of pdbs to dump shared pool info for  
_ksm_sp_rcr_hits n/a hits to make object recurrent  
_ksmb_debug ksmb debug flags  
_ksmd_protect_mode KSMD protect mode for catching stale access  
_ksmd_trace n/a ksmd tracing  
_ksmg_granule_locking_status n/a granule locking status  
_ksmg_granule_size granule size in bytes  
_ksmg_lock_check_interval n/a timeout action interval in minutes  
_ksmg_lock_reacquire_count n/a repeat count for acquisition of locks  
_ksmlsaf n/a KSM log alloc and free  
_ksmsq_hintmaxinst n/a KSMSQ Hint Max Instances  
_ksmsq_hintmaxproc n/a KSMSQ Hint Max Processes  
_kspol_tac_timeout timeouts for TAC registerd by kspol  
_ksr_unit_test_processes number of ksr unit test processes  
_ksrma_enabled n/a turn ksrma off, make it automatic, or turn on CMI or KSMSQ provider. Default is off  
_ksrma_gsm_base_addr n/a Base Address to use for GSM  
_kss_callstack_type state object callstack trace type  
_kss_quiet if TRUE access violations during kss dumps are not recorded  
_ksu_diag_kill_time number of seconds ksuitm waits before killing diag  
_ksuitm_addon_trccmd command to execute when dead processes don't go away  
_ksuitm_dont_kill_dumper delay inst. termination to allow processes to dump  
_ksv_dynamic_flags1 ksv dynamic flags 1 - override default behavior  
_ksv_max_spawn_fail_limit bg slave spawn failure limit  
_ksv_pool_hang_kill_to bg slave pool terminate timeout  
_ksv_pool_wait_timeout bg slave pool wait limit  
_ksv_slave_exit_timeout n/a slave exit timeout  
_ksv_spawn_control_all control all spawning of background slaves  
_ksv_static_flags1 ksv static flags 1 - override default behavior  
_ksvppktmode ksv internal pkt test  
_ksws_goodness_control n/a KSWS Goodness Control to Manually override  
_ksws_java_patching n/a java patching mode  
_kswsas_close_pdb_on_lstsvc n/a Close a PDB when the last user service is stopped  
_kswsas_db_svc_mapping n/a Map db service name to different service  
_kswsas_drain_kill_batch_size n/a Batch size for killing non-drained sessions  
_kswsas_ht_log_size n/a kswsas_ht_log_size  
_kswsas_num_jp_slaves n/a Number of slaves for java patching  
_ksxp_compat_flags ksxp compat flags  
_ksxp_control_flags modify ksxp behavior  
_ksxp_diagmode set to OFF to disable automatic slowsend diagnostics  
_ksxp_disable_clss disable CLSS interconnects  
_ksxp_disable_dynamic_loading disable dynamic loadin of lib skgxp  
_ksxp_disable_ipc_stats disable ipc statistics  
_ksxp_disable_rolling_migration disable possibility of starting rolling migration  
_ksxp_dump_timeout set timeout for kjzddmp request  
_ksxp_dynamic_skgxp_param dynamic skgxp parameters  
_ksxp_exa_ip_config ksxp exa ip config  
_ksxp_if_config ksxp if config flags  
_ksxp_init_stats_bkts initial number arrays for ipc statistics  
_ksxp_ipclw_enabled n/a enable ipclw for KSXP  
_ksxp_ipclw_ptswinsz n/a KSXP port conn send window  
_ksxp_ksmsq_ip_config n/a ksxp ksmsq ip config  
_ksxp_lw_post_flags n/a tune ksxp post (lw)  
_ksxp_lwipc_enabled n/a enable lwipc for KSXP  
_ksxp_max_stats_bkts max. arrays for ipc statistics  
_ksxp_ping_enable disable dynamic loadin of lib skgxp  
_ksxp_ping_polling_time max. arrays for ipc statistics  
_ksxp_reaping tune ksxp layer reaping limit  
_ksxp_reporting_process reporting process for KSXP  
_ksxp_save_sockets n/a Limit foreground process's sockets  
_ksxp_save_sockets_pattern n/a Process pattern on which sockets saving is active  
_ksxp_send_timeout set timeout for sends queued with the inter-instance IPC  
_ksxp_skgxp_ant_options SKGXP ANT options  
_ksxp_skgxp_compat_library_path n/a over-ride default location of lib skgxp compat  
_ksxp_skgxp_ctx_flags1 IPC debug options flags (RAC)  
_ksxp_skgxp_ctx_flags1mask IPC debug options flags mask (RAC)  
_ksxp_skgxp_dynamic_protocol IPC protocol override (RAC) (0/-1=*,2=UDP,3=RDS,!0x1000=ipc_X)  
_ksxp_skgxp_inets limit SKGXP networks (ksxp) limit SKGXP networks
_ksxp_skgxp_library_path n/a over-ride default location of lib skgxp  
_ksxp_skgxp_rgn_ports region socket limits (0xFFFFNNXX): F=flags, N=min, X=max  
_ksxp_skgxp_spare_param1 ipc ksxp spare parameter 1  
_ksxp_skgxp_spare_param2 ipc ksxp spare parameter 2  
_ksxp_skgxp_spare_param3 ipc ksxp spare parameter 3  
_ksxp_skgxp_spare_param4 n/a ipc ksxp spare parameter 4  
_ksxp_skgxp_spare_param5 n/a ipc ksxp spare parameter 5  
_ksxp_skgxpg_last_parameter last defined skgxpg parameter - ksxp  
_ksxp_spare_param1 n/a KSXP Spare Parameter 1  
_ksxp_stats_mem_lmt limit ipc statistics memory. this parameter is a percentage value  
_ksxp_testing KSXP test parameter  
_ksxp_unit_test_byte_transformation enable byte transformation unit test  
_ksxp_validate_cnh_life_cycle n/a enable validation of ksxp connection life cycle  
_ksxp_wait_flags tune ksxpwait  
_ksxp_xrc_cm_port n/a override XRC CM port  
_ktb_debug_flags ktb-layer debug flags  
_ktc_debug for ktc debug  
_ktc_latches number of ktc latches  
_ktilm_uga_off n/a Disable KTILM UGA cache activity tracking  
_ktilmsc_exp n/a expiration time of ktilm segment cache (in second)  
_ktslj_segext_max_mb segment pre-extension max size in MB (0: unlimited)  
_ktslj_segext_retry segment pre-extension retry  
_ktslj_segext_warning segment pre-extension warning threshold in percentage  
_ktslj_segext_warning_mb segment pre-extension warning threshold in MB  
_ktspsrch_maxsc maximum segments supported by space search cache  
_ktspsrch_maxskip space search cache rejection skip upper limit  
_ktspsrch_scchk cleanout check time of space search cache  
_ktspsrch_scexp expiration time of space search cache  
_ktst_rss_max maximum temp extents to be released across instance  
_ktst_rss_min minimum temp extents to be released across instance  
_ktst_rss_retry maximum retries of sort segment release  
_ktt_tsid_reuse_threshold n/a tablespace id reuse threshold  
_kttext_warning tablespace pre-extension warning threshold in percentage  
_ktu_latches number of KTU latches  
_ku_trace datapump trace parameter  
_kxdbio_ctx_init_count n/a initial count of KXDBIO state object  
_kxdbio_disable_offload_opcode n/a KXDBIO Disable offload for the set opcodes. Value is a Bitmap of 0x00000001 - disable cell to cell data copy offload 0x00000002 - disable disk scrubbing offload to cell 0x00000004 - disable offloaded writes to cell  
_kxdbio_enable_ds_opcode n/a KXDBIO Enable Dumb storage simulation for the set opcodes.  
_kxdbio_hca_loadavg_thresh n/a HCA loadavg threshold at which writes need to get offloaded  
_kxdbio_offena_timeout n/a kxdbio re-enable offloaded write timeout  
_kxdbio_ut_ctl n/a kxdbio unit test controls  
_kxscio_cap_stacks n/a capture location when kxscio is set to null  
_large_pool_min_alloc minimum allocation size in bytes for the large allocation pool  
_last_allocation_period period over which an instance can retain an active level1 bitmap  
_latch_class_0 latch class 0  
_latch_class_1 latch class 1  
_latch_class_2 latch class 2  
_latch_class_3 latch class 3  
_latch_class_4 latch class 4  
_latch_class_5 latch class 5  
_latch_class_6 latch class 6  
_latch_class_7 latch class 7  
_latch_classes latch classes override  
_latch_miss_stat_sid Sid of process for which to collect latch stats  
_latch_pause_count n/a Latch pause count  
_latch_pause_mode n/a Latch pause mode  
_latch_recovery_alignment n/a align latch recovery structures  
_latch_wait_list_pri_sleep_secs n/a Time to sleep on latch wait list until getting priority  
_ldap_adaptive_to_no_nested_group_search n/a LDAP adaptive to no nested group search  
_ldap_config_force_sync_up n/a LDAP configure force sync up  
_ldap_config_ssl_for_sasl_md5 n/a LDAP configure SSL for SASL-DIGEST-MD5  
_ldap_no_nested_group_search n/a LDAP no nested group search  
_ldap_password_oneway_auth n/a Use oneway auth for password based LDAP directory bind  
_ldap_reset_user_account_flc n/a LDAP reset user account lockout counter  
_ldr_io_size size of write IOs used during a load operation  
_ldr_io_size2 n/a size of write IOs used during a load operation of EHCC with HWMB  
_ldr_pga_lim pga limit, beyond which new partition loads are delayed  
_ldr_tempseg_threshold n/a amount to buffer prior to allocating temp segment (extent sizing)  
_left_nested_loops_random enable random distribution method for left of nestedloops  
_lgwr_delay_write LGWR write delay for debugging  
_lgwr_io_outlier n/a LGWR I/O outlier frequency  
_lgwr_io_slaves LGWR I/O slaves  
_lgwr_max_ns_wt Maximum wait time for lgwr to allow NetServer to progress  
_lgwr_ns_nl_max Variable to simulate network latency or buffer threshold  
_lgwr_ns_nl_min Variable to simulate network latency or buffer threshold  
_lgwr_ns_sim_err Variable to simulate errors lgwrns  
_lgwr_posts_for_pending_bcasts LGWR posts commit waiters for pending broadcasts  
_lgwr_ta_sim_err Variable to simulate errors lgwr true async  
_library_cache_advice whether KGL advice should be turned on  
_library_cache_dump_cooling_period n/a Period to wait (in minutes) before resetting dump count  
_library_cache_dump_interval n/a Interval (in seconds) between each dump  
_light_work_rule_debug n/a if TRUE, light work rule debugging is enabled  
_lightweight_hdrs Lightweight headers for redo  
_like_with_bind_as_equality treat LIKE predicate with bind as an equality predicate  
_limit_itls limit the number of ITLs in OLTP Compressed Tables  
_link_ts_name n/a Name of linked tablespace  
_linux_prepage_large_pages n/a prepage large pages during allocation on Linux  
_lm_activate_lms_threshold threshold value to activate an additional lms  
_lm_adrm_interval n/a active drm interval in centiseconds  
_lm_adrm_options n/a active drm options  
_lm_adrm_scan_timeout n/a active drm f2a/flush scan timeout in centisecs  
_lm_adrm_time_out n/a active drm timeout in minutes  
_lm_asm_enq_hashing if TRUE makes ASM use enqueue master hashing for fusion locks  
_lm_batch_compression_threshold GES threshold to start compression on batch messages  
_lm_better_ddvictim GES better deadlock victim  
_lm_big_cluster_optimizations n/a enable certain big cluster optimizations in drm  
_lm_broadcast_res Enable broadcast of highest held mode of resource.  
_lm_broadcast_resname n/a Trace string of resource type(s)  
_lm_cache_allocated_res_ratio ratio of cached over allocated resources ratio of cached over allocated resources
_lm_cache_enqueue n/a string of enqueues to cache at the client: separate by |, use DECIMAL identifiers or '*' as wildcard, eg. AK-12-*  
_lm_cache_lvl0_cleanup how often to cleanup level 0 cache res (in sec)  
_lm_cache_res_cleanup percentage of cached resources should be cleanup  
_lm_cache_res_cleanup_tries max number of batches of cached resources to free per cleanup  
_lm_cache_res_options ges resource cache options  
_lm_cache_res_skip_cleanup multiple of iniital res cache below which cleanup is skipped  
_lm_cache_res_type cache resource: string of lock types(s)  
_lm_check_ges_resource n/a GES: additional checks during resource allocation (0|1|2|3)  
_lm_checksum_batch_msg GES checksum batch messages  
_lm_chk_inv_domenq_ops n/a enable checks for invalid enqueue operations on domains  
_lm_comm_channel n/a GES communication channel type  
_lm_comm_msgq_bufr_multiple n/a MSGQ_DRMQ multiple for maximum buffers  
_lm_comm_msgq_busywait n/a busy wait time in microsecond for msgq  
_lm_comm_msgq_copy_buffers n/a MSGQ_DRMQ copy msgs to new buffer  
_lm_comm_msgq_fixed_buffers n/a MSGQ with fixed number of receive buffers  
_lm_comm_rcv_msg_history_slots n/a GES communication receive message history slots  
_lm_comm_reap_count n/a message reap count for receive  
_lm_comm_slow_op_loop_threshold n/a GES communication slow operation loop threshold in ms  
_lm_comm_slow_op_stat_dump_threshold n/a GES communication slow operation stat dump threshold in sec  
_lm_comm_sync_seq_on_send_failure n/a GES communication sync seq for failed sends after reconfig  
_lm_comm_tkts_adaptive n/a Adpative ticketing enabled  
_lm_comm_tkts_calc_period_length n/a Weighted average calculation interval length (us)  
_lm_comm_tkts_max_add n/a Ticket allocation maximum allotments  
_lm_comm_tkts_max_periods n/a Max number of periods used in weighted avearage calculation  
_lm_comm_tkts_min_decrease_wait n/a Seconds to wait before allowing an allocation decrease  
_lm_comm_tkts_min_increase_wait n/a Seconds to wait before allowing an allocation increase  
_lm_comm_tkts_mult_factor n/a Ticket allocation multiplication factor  
_lm_comm_tkts_nullreq_threshold n/a Null request threshold  
_lm_comm_tkts_sub_factor n/a Ticket allocation subtraction factor  
_lm_compression_scheme GES compression scheme  
_lm_contiguous_res_count number of contiguous blocks that will hash to the same HV bucket  
_lm_db_rank n/a rank of this DB for process priority purposes  
_lm_db_ranks n/a ranks of DBs on this node  
_lm_dd_ignore_nodd if TRUE nodeadlockwait/nodeadlockblock options are ignored  
_lm_dd_interval dd time interval in seconds  
_lm_dd_max_search_time max dd search time per token  
_lm_dd_maxdump max number of locks to be dumped during dd validation max number of locks to be dumped during dd validation
_lm_dd_scan_interval dd scan interval in seconds  
_lm_dd_search_cnt number of dd search per token get  
_lm_deferred_msg_timeout deferred message timeout  
_lm_domain_hash_buckets n/a number of buckets for the domains hash table  
_lm_drm_banned_objs list of objects not allowed to do drm  
_lm_drm_batch_time time in seconds to wait to batch drm requests  
_lm_drm_disable disable drm in different level  
_lm_drm_disable_kjfc n/a disable drm at kjfc level  
_lm_drm_duration_limit set drm object duration limit type (time/size) set drm object duration limit (secs time/object size)
_lm_drm_duration_limit_type set drm object time limit drm object time limit type (time/size)
_lm_drm_filter_history_window drm filter history window  
_lm_drm_filter_history_window_type drm object time limit type (time/size)  
_lm_drm_filters enable drm filters  
_lm_drm_hiload_percentage drm high load threshold percentage  
_lm_drm_lowload_percentage drm low load threshold percentage  
_lm_drm_max_banned_objs maximum number of objects not allowed to do drm  
_lm_drm_max_requests dynamic remastering maximum affinity requests processed together  
_lm_drm_min_interval minimum interval in secs between two consecutive drms  
_lm_drm_object_scan enable/disable object scan to force full table scan always  
_lm_drm_we_interval n/a drm wait events collection interval in seconds  
_lm_drm_we_size n/a size of drm wait events statistics  
_lm_drm_window dynamic remastering bucket window size  
_lm_drm_xlatch dynamic remastering forced exclusive latches  
_lm_drmopt12 n/a enable drm scan optimizations in 12  
_lm_drmopts n/a enable drm scan/latch optimizations  
_lm_dump_null_lock dump null lock in state dump  
_lm_dynamic_lms dynamic lms invocation  
_lm_dynamic_load dynamic load adjustment  
_lm_dynamic_sga_target n/a dynamically adjust for changes in SGA size  
_lm_enable_aff_benefit_stats enables affinity benefit computations if TRUE  
_lm_enable_translation n/a tells if KJURN_PDBID should translate using kpdb calls  
_lm_enq_iso_enabled n/a if TRUE enables enqueue isolation  
_lm_enq_lock_freelist Number of ges enqueue element freelist  
_lm_enq_rcfg if TRUE enables enqueue reconfiguration  
_lm_enqueue_blocker_dump_timeout enqueue blocker dump timeout  
_lm_enqueue_blocker_dump_timeout_cnt n/a enqueue blocker dump timeout count  
_lm_enqueue_blocker_kill_timeout enqueue blocker kill timeout  
_lm_enqueue_freelist Number of enqueue freelist  
_lm_enqueue_timeout enqueue suggested min timeout in seconds  
_lm_exadata_fence_type n/a if FALSE disable Exadata fence type  
_lm_fdrm_stats gather full drm statistics  
_lm_file_affinity mapping between file id and master instance number  
_lm_file_read_mostly mapping between read-mostly file id and master instance number  
_lm_free_queue_threshold GES free queue threshold  
_lm_freeze_kill_time timeout for killing unfrozen processes in rcfg/drm freeze step  
_lm_gl_hash_scheme n/a group lock table hashing scheme (0|1|2)  
_lm_global_posts if TRUE deliver global posts to remote nodes  
_lm_hash_control n/a bit field controlling the hashing behavior of the lock manager  
_lm_hashtable_bkt_high n/a High element threshold in hash table bucket  
_lm_hashtable_bkt_low n/a Low element threshold in hash table bucket  
_lm_hashtable_bkt_thr n/a Threshold for hash table resizing  
_lm_hb_acceptable_hang_condition n/a list of acceptable hang conditions in heartbeat check  
_lm_hb_callstack_collect_time hb diagnostic call stack collection time in seconds  
_lm_hb_callstack_collect_time_long n/a extended hb diagnostic call stack collection time in seconds  
_lm_hb_cfio_timeout n/a control file io timeout in seconds  
_lm_hb_disable_check_list list of process names to be disabled in heartbeat check  
_lm_hb_enable_acl_check n/a to enable the wait analysis with acceptable condition lists  
_lm_hb_exponential_hang_time_factor n/a heartbeat exponential hang time multiplier  
_lm_hb_maximum_hang_report_count n/a maximum heartbeat hang report count  
_lm_hb_per_proc_behavior n/a heartbeat behavior  
_lm_hb_per_proc_timeout n/a heartbeat timeout  
_lm_hb_timeout_extension n/a heartbeat timeout extension in seconds  
_lm_high_load_sysload_percentage high watermark system load percentage  
_lm_high_load_threshold high load threshold parameter  
_lm_hwc_disabled n/a to disable handle with care behavior  
_lm_idle_connection_action n/a GES idle connection action  
_lm_idle_connection_check GES idle connection check  
_lm_idle_connection_check_interval GES idle connection check interval time  
_lm_idle_connection_instance_check_callout GES idle connection instance check callout  
_lm_idle_connection_kill GES idle connection kill  
_lm_idle_connection_kill_max_skips n/a GES idle connection max skip kill request  
_lm_idle_connection_load_check n/a GES idle connection load check  
_lm_idle_connection_max_ignore_kill_count n/a GES maximum idle connection kill request ignore count  
_lm_idle_connection_quorum_threshold n/a GES idle connection health quorum threshold  
_lm_inherited_max_requests n/a maximum inherited affinity dissolve requests processed together  
_lm_kill_fg_on_timeout GES kill fg on IPC timeout  
_lm_lazy_domain_timeout n/a lazy domain timeout in seconds  
_lm_lazy_recovery_member_timeout n/a lazy recovery member detach timeout in seconds  
_lm_lhupd_interval load and health update interval  
_lm_lmd_waittime default wait time for lmd in centiseconds  
_lm_lmon_nowait_latch if TRUE makes lmon get nowait latches with timeout loop  
_lm_lms number of background gcs server processes to start  
_lm_lms_no_yield n/a if TRUE, LMS will not yield in spin mode  
_lm_lms_opt_priority n/a enable freeslot lms priority optimization  
_lm_lms_priority_check_frequency n/a frequency of LMS priority decisions in milliseconds  
_lm_lms_priority_dynamic enable lms priority modification  
_lm_lms_rt_threshold maximum number of real time lms processes on machine  
_lm_lms_spin make lms not sleep  
_lm_lms_waittime default wait time for lms in centiseconds  
_lm_local_hp_enq use static file affinity for HP enqueue mastership  
_lm_locks number of enqueues configured for cluster database  
_lm_low_load_percentage low watermark percentage for load threshold  
_lm_master_weight master resource weight for this instance  
_lm_max_lms max. number of background global cache server processes  
_lm_max_lms_block_time n/a max blocking time allowed on LMS (sec)  
_lm_mp_avail_queue_threshold n/a GES MP avail queue threshold  
_lm_mp_bulk_mbuf_free n/a GES MP bulk free message buffer queues  
_lm_mp_latch_trigger n/a GES MP Latch trigger threshold for trace lines  
_lm_mp_latch_trigger_soft n/a GES MP Latch trigger threshold for soft assert  
_lm_msg_batch_size GES batch message size  
_lm_msg_cleanup_interval GES message buffer cleanup interval time  
_lm_msg_pool_dump_threshold n/a GES message pool dump threshold in terms of buffer count  
_lm_msg_pool_user_callstack_dump n/a GES message pool call stack dump upon exceeding of threshold  
_lm_no_lh_check skip load and health check at decision points  
_lm_no_sync skip reconfiguration/drm syncr/synca messaging  
_lm_node_join_opt cluster database node join optimization in reconfig  
_lm_non_fault_tolerant disable cluster database fault-tolerance mode  
_lm_nonisolated_restype n/a string of resource types banned from enqueue isolation  
_lm_num_bnft_stats_buckets n/a number of buckets in the benefit stats hash table  
_lm_num_msg_pools_per_type n/a number of GES message pools per type  
_lm_num_pt_buckets number of buckets in the object affinity hash table  
_lm_num_pt_latches number of latches in the object affinity hash table  
_lm_omni_ack_timeout n/a Max time to wait for omni acks before triggering netcheck in secs  
_lm_optmode_switch n/a GES: Optmode switching for enqueues (none, manual, stats-driven)  
_lm_pdb_domains_enable n/a enable pdb domains in DLM  
_lm_pdb_wait_all_gone n/a pdb domain attach wait until all locks are gone  
_lm_postevent_buffer_size postevent buffer size  
_lm_preregister_css_restype enqueue type that requires pre-registration to css  
_lm_proc_freeze_timeout reconfiguration: process freeze timeout  
_lm_process_batching GES implicit process batching for IPC messages  
_lm_process_lock_q_scan_limit n/a limit on scanning process lock queue instead of resource convert lock queue  
_lm_procs number of client processes configured for cluster database  
_lm_psrcfg enable pseudo reconfiguration  
_lm_rac_spare_dp1 rac parameter dp1  
_lm_rac_spare_dp10 rac parameter dp10  
_lm_rac_spare_dp2 rac parameter dp2  
_lm_rac_spare_dp3 rac parameter dp3  
_lm_rac_spare_dp4 rac parameter dp4  
_lm_rac_spare_dp5 rac parameter dp5  
_lm_rac_spare_dp6 rac parameter dp6  
_lm_rac_spare_dp7 rac parameter dp7  
_lm_rac_spare_dp8 rac parameter dp8  
_lm_rac_spare_dp9 rac parameter dp9  
_lm_rac_spare_p1 rac parameter p1  
_lm_rac_spare_p10 rac parameter p10  
_lm_rac_spare_p11 n/a rac parameter p11  
_lm_rac_spare_p12 n/a rac parameter p12  
_lm_rac_spare_p13 n/a rac parameter p13  
_lm_rac_spare_p14 n/a rac parameter p14  
_lm_rac_spare_p15 n/a rac parameter p15  
_lm_rac_spare_p16 n/a rac parameter p16  
_lm_rac_spare_p2 rac parameter p2  
_lm_rac_spare_p3 rac parameter p3  
_lm_rac_spare_p4 rac parameter p4  
_lm_rac_spare_p5 rac parameter p5  
_lm_rac_spare_p6 rac parameter p6  
_lm_rac_spare_p7 rac parameter p7  
_lm_rac_spare_p8 rac parameter p8  
_lm_rac_spare_p9 rac parameter p9  
_lm_rcfg_kjcdump_time n/a dlm reconfiguration communication dump interval  
_lm_rcfg_timeout dlm reconfiguration timeout  
_lm_rcvinst designated instance to do instance recovery instance inheritance
_lm_rcvinst_atp_opt n/a recovery instance optimization for ATP  
_lm_rcvinst_sga_threshold n/a recovery buddy SGA threshold  
_lm_rcvr_hang_allow_time receiver hang allow time in seconds  
_lm_rcvr_hang_cfio_kill to kill receiver hang at control file IO  
_lm_rcvr_hang_check_frequency receiver hang check frequency in seconds  
_lm_rcvr_hang_check_system_load examine system load when check receiver health  
_lm_rcvr_hang_kill to kill receiver hang  
_lm_rcvr_hang_systemstate_dump_level systemstate dump level upon receiver hang  
_lm_recovery_set n/a enable recovery set checking for accessing invalid domains  
_lm_reloc_use_mhint n/a if TRUE, AR-/AH-enqueues use mastering hints  
_lm_res_hash_bucket number of resource hash buckets  
_lm_res_part number of resource partition configured for gcs  
_lm_res_tm_hash_bucket number in % of extra TM resource hash buckets number of extra TM resource hash buckets
_lm_resend_open_convert_timeout n/a timeout in secs before resubmitting the open-convert  
_lm_ress number of resources configured for cluster database  
_lm_rm_object_bypass n/a enable read-mostly object bypass for HARIM  
_lm_rm_slaves n/a number of remastering slaves  
_lm_send_mode GES send mode  
_lm_send_queue_batching GES send queue message batching  
_lm_send_queue_length GES send queue maximum length  
_lm_sendproxy_reserve GES percentage of send proxy reserve of send tickets  
_lm_share_lock_opt if TRUE enables share lock optimization  
_lm_share_lock_pdbisolation n/a if TRUE enables share lock optimization with pdb isolation  
_lm_share_lock_restype n/a string of enqueue resource types eligible for S-optimisation  
_lm_single_inst_affinity_lock enable single instance affinity lock optimization  
_lm_singleton_pdb_opt n/a RAC PDB singleton optimization  
_lm_sndq_flush_int n/a send queue flush time interval (ms)  
_lm_sp_slaves n/a number of sendproxy slaves  
_lm_spare_threads number of spare threads to be created by the GPnP master  
_lm_spare_undo number of spare undo tablespaces to be created by GPnP master  
_lm_sq_batch_factor GES send queue minimum batching factor  
_lm_sq_batch_type GES send queue batching mechanism  
_lm_sq_batch_waittick GES send queue batching waittime in tick  
_lm_sync_timeout Synchronization timeout for DLM reconfiguration steps  
_lm_throttle_time_interval n/a GES message throttle interval time in sec  
_lm_ticket_active_sendback Flow control ticket active sendback threshold  
_lm_ticket_check_inject n/a Inject tickets when flow control tkt leak discoverd  
_lm_ticket_low_limit_warning n/a lowest number of avail tickets percentage threshold warning  
_lm_ticket_min n/a GES messaging tickets per instance minimum  
_lm_tickets GES messaging tickets  
_lm_timed_statistics_level n/a if non zero, it enables timed statistics on lmd and lms  
_lm_tkt_leak_check_count n/a Consecutive low NULLACKs to trigger leak check  
_lm_tkt_leak_check_seconds n/a Duration of leak check in seconds  
_lm_tx_delta TX lock localization delta  
_lm_uid_default_lookup_value n/a returns the default value for uid to id translation  
_lm_use_gcr use GCR module if TRUE  
_lm_use_new_defmsgtmo_action use new defered msg queue timeout action  
_lm_use_tx_tsn use undo tsn affinity master as TX enqueue master  
_lm_use_us_timer n/a Use microsecond timer for LM hist  
_lm_validate_pbatch GES process batch validation  
_lm_validate_resource_type n/a if TRUE enables resource name validation  
_lm_wait_for_hub_rcv_timeout n/a read-only insts wait for hub avaliable to recover in millis  
_lm_wait_pending_send_queue n/a GES wait on pending send queue  
_lm_watchpoint_kjmddp n/a list of kjmddp fields for memory watchpoint  
_lm_watchpoint_maximum GES number of watchpoints  
_lm_watchpoint_timeout GES maximum time in seconds to keep watchpoint  
_lm_xids number of transaction IDs configured for cluster database  
_lmhb_procstate_dump_cputime_limit n/a hb diagnostic cputime limit for process state dump in secs  
_lmhb_procstate_dump_runtime_limit n/a hb diagnostic runtime limit for process state dump in secs  
_lmn_compression n/a suppl logging for compression enabled  
_lmn_invalidlkr_enabled n/a suppl logging for invalid lkr enabled  
_lms_rollbacks n/a Maximum number of CR rollbacks per block under LMS  
_load_without_compile Load PL/SQL or Database objects without compilation  
_lob_use_locator_varying_width n/a use varying width flag in lob locator  
_local_arc_assert_on_wait Assert whenever local ORL arch waits for space  
_local_communication_costing_enabled enable local communication costing when TRUE  
_local_communication_ratio set the ratio between global and local communication (0..100)  
_local_hang_analysis_interval_secs the interval at which local hang analysis is run  
_lock_dc_users_time n/a max time to attempt to lock dc_users  
_lock_next_constraint_count n/a max number of attempts to lock _NEXT_CONSTRAINT  
_lock_ref_constraint_count number of nowait attempts to lock referential constraint  
_lock_ref_descendants_count n/a number of nowait attempts to lock ref-partitioning descendants  
_lock_sga_areas n/a Lock specified areas of the SGA in physical memory  
_log_archive_avoid_memcpy log archive avoid memcpy  
_log_archive_buffers Number of buffers to allocate for archiving  
_log_archive_callout n/a archival callout  
_log_archive_network_redo_size Log archive network redo buffer size used by ARCH  
_log_archive_prot_auto_demote log archive protection auto demotion  
_log_archive_security_enabled n/a log archive security enabled  
_log_archive_strong_auth log archive security strong auth  
_log_archive_trace_pids log archive trace pids parameter  
_log_blocks_during_backup log block images when changed during backup  
_log_buffer_coalesce Coalescing log buffers for log writes  
_log_buffers_corrupt corrupt redo buffers before write  
_log_buffers_debug debug redo buffers (slows things down)  
_log_checkpoint_recovery_check # redo blocks to verify after checkpoint  
_log_committime_block_cleanout Log commit-time block cleanout  
_log_deletion_policy archivelog deletion policy for mandatory/all destination  
_log_event_queues n/a number of the log writer event queues  
_log_file_sync_timeout Log file sync timeout (centiseconds)  
_log_io_size n/a automatically initiate log write if this many redo blocks in buffer  
_log_max_optimize_threads maximum number of threads to which log scan optimization is applied  
_log_parallelism_dynamic Enable dynamic strands  
_log_parallelism_max Maximum number of log buffer strands  
_log_private_mul Private strand multiplier for log space preallocation  
_log_private_parallelism_mul Active sessions multiplier to deduce number of private strands  
_log_read_buffer_size buffer size for reading log files  
_log_read_buffers Number of log read buffers for media recovery  
_log_segment_dump_parameter n/a Dump KSP on Log Segmentation  
_log_segment_dump_patch n/a Dump Patchinfo on Log Segmentation  
_log_silicon_secured_memory n/a enable silicon secured memory (log)  
_log_simultaneous_copies number of simultaneous copies into redo buffer(# of copy latches)  
_log_space_errors should we report space errors to alert log  
_log_switch_timeout Maximum number of seconds redos in the current log could span  
_log_write_info_size Size of log write info array  
_log_write_worker_post_spinwait n/a How long log write workers spin wait before posting FGs  
_log_write_worker_task_prefetch n/a Log write worker prefetches tasks  
_log_write_worker_task_spinwait n/a How long log write workers spin wait for imminent tasks  
_log_writer_worker_dlm_hearbeat_update_freq n/a LGWR worker DLM health-monitoring heartbeat update frequency (ms)  
_logout_storm_rate number of processes that can logout in a second  
_logout_storm_retrycnt maximum retry count for logouts  
_logout_storm_timeout timeout in centi-seconds for time to wait between retries  
_long_bcast_ack_warning_threshold threshold for long bcast ack warning messages in ms  
_long_log_write_warning_threshold threshold for long log write warning messages in ms  
_longops_enabled longops stats enabled  
_longops_per_latch n/a number of longops to allocate per latch  
_lost_write_parallelism_change_tracking n/a Maximum number of lost write change tracking buffers  
_low_scn_headroom_warning_threshold_days n/a low SCN headroom warning threshold in days  
_low_server_threshold low server thresholds  
_lowres_drift_allowed_sec allowed lowres timer drift for VKTM  
_lrgdbcz6_ignore_restrictions n/a Temp parameter to ignore app script restrictions for lrgdbcz6  
_ltc_trace tracing level for load table conventional  
_lthread_cleanup_intv_secs n/a interval for cleaning lightweight threads in secs  
_lthread_clnup_hk_wait_secs n/a timeout after hard killing operation for lthread to exit  
_lthread_clnup_pmon_softkill_wait_secs n/a wait timeout for PMON between soft kill and hard kill of lthreads  
_lthread_clnup_spawner_sk_wait_secs n/a timeout for spawner between soft kill and hard kill of lthreads  
_lthread_debug n/a Enable Debugging mode for lightweight threads  
_lthread_enabled n/a Enable lightweight threads  
_lthread_idle_timeout_secs n/a Idle timeout in seconds for LWTs to terminate  
_lthread_max_spawn_time_csecs n/a maximum time interval a spawner will wait for a lthread to get ready  
_lthread_spawn_check_intv_ms n/a time interval for a spawner to check for spawnee to get ready  
_lthread_step_debugging n/a Enable Step wise Debugging mode for lightweight threads  
_main_dead_process_scan_interval PMON main dead process scan interval (in seconds)  
_master_direct_sends direct sends for messages from master (DFS)  
_mav_refresh_consistent_read refresh materialized views using consistent read snapshot  
_mav_refresh_double_count_prevented materialized view MAV refreshes avoid double counting  
_mav_refresh_opt optimizations during refresh of materialized views  
_mav_refresh_unionall_tables # tables for union all expansion during materialized view refresh  
_max_aq_persistent_queue_memory max aq persistent queue memory  
_max_async_wait_for_catch_up Switchover wait time for async LNS to catch up in seconds  
_max_clients_per_emon n/a maximum number of clients per emon  
_max_cr_rollbacks Maximum number of CR rollbacks per block (LMS)  
_max_data_transfer_cache_size n/a Maximum size of data transfer cache  
_max_defer_gran_xfer_atonce n/a Maximum deferred granules transferred by MMAN atonce  
_max_dynamic_sessions n/a max dynamic session count  
_max_exponential_sleep max sleep during exponential backoff  
_max_filestat_tries maximum number of file stat tries  
_max_fsu_exptime n/a Fast Space Usage: Entry expiration time in seconds  
_max_fsu_segments Maximum segments to track for fast space usage  
_max_fsu_sgapcent n/a Percentage of shared pool for Fast Space Usage  
_max_fsu_stale_time Allowed space usage staleness in seconds  
_max_incident_file_size n/a Maximum size (in KB, MB, GB, Blocks) of incident dump file  
_max_io_size Maximum I/O size in bytes for sequential file accesses  
_max_kcnibr_ranges n/a Max number of nonlogged data block ranges  
_max_large_io IORM:max number of large I/O's to issue  
_max_largepage_alloc_time_secs Maximum number of seconds to spend on largepage allocation  
_max_library_cache_dumps n/a Maximum number of dumps allowed  
_max_lns_shutdown_archival_time Maximum time spent by LNS to archive last log during shutdown  
_max_log_write_parallelism n/a Maximum parallelism within a log write (auto=0)  
_max_lwt_cpu_ratio n/a ratio to determine the maximum CPUs for LWTs  
_max_outstanding_log_writes n/a Maximum number of outstanding redo log writes  
_max_pending_scn_bcasts maximum number of pending SCN broadcasts  
_max_physmem_perc_mmt n/a maximum percentage of physical memory for memory_max_target  
_max_physmem_perc_sga n/a maximum percentage of physical memory for SGA  
_max_protocol_support Max occurrence protocols supported in a process  
_max_queued_report_requests n/a Maximum number of report requests that can be queued in a list  
_max_reasonable_scn_rate Max reasonable SCN rate  
_max_remote_tool_requests n/a Maximum number of remote tool requests  
_max_report_flushes_percycle n/a Max no of report requests that can be flushed per cycle  
_max_row_cache_dumps n/a Maximum number of dumps allowed  
_max_rwgs_groupings maximum no of groupings on materialized views  
_max_services maximum number of database services  
_max_shrink_obj_stats number of segments for which shrink stats will be maintained  
_max_shutdown_abort_secs n/a Maximum wait time for shutdown abort in seconds  
_max_sleep_holding_latch max time to sleep while holding a latch  
_max_small_io IORM:max number of small I/O's to issue  
_max_spacebg_msgs_percentage maximum space management interrupt message throttling  
_max_spacebg_slaves maximum space management background slaves  
_max_spacebg_tasks maximum space management background tasks  
_max_sql_stmt_length Maximum allowed sql statement length  
_max_stmt_tries_sync n/a Maximum number of tries of a statement during Application Sync  
_max_string_size_bypass n/a controls error checking for the max_string_size parameter  
_max_sys_next_extent Dictionary managed SYSTEM tablespace maximum next extent size in MB (allowed range [16-4095], 0 if unlimited)  
_maxrpop_files_inst Maxmimum files rpop works on per instance  
_maxrpop_instances Maxmimum rpop file instances Maxmimum rpop file instances
_media_recovery_read_batch media recovery block read batch  
_mem_annotation_pr_lev private memory annotation collection level  
_mem_annotation_scale memory annotation pre-allocation scaling  
_mem_annotation_sh_lev shared memory annotation collection level  
_mem_annotation_store memory annotation in-memory store  
_mem_std_extent_size standard extent size for fixed-size-extent heaps  
_memoptimize_xmem_pool_size n/a Size of MEMOPTIMIZE buffer pool for standard block size buffers on extended memory  
_memory_adi_bytes_per_alloc n/a bytes per allocation to get memory application data integrity  
_memory_adi_enabled n/a enable memory application data integrity  
_memory_adi_extend n/a enable ADI for kgh headers and free memory  
_memory_adi_heap_mask n/a enable ADI versioning for these heaps  
_memory_adi_module_mask n/a bit mask of modules to enable ADI versioning  
_memory_adi_precise_errors n/a enable precise memory application data integrity errors  
_memory_broker_log_stat_entries memory broker num stat entries  
_memory_broker_marginal_utility_bc Marginal Utility threshold pct for bc  
_memory_broker_marginal_utility_sp Marginal Utility threshold pct for sp  
_memory_broker_sga_grow_split n/a if TRUE, allow sga grow to be split between cache and sp  
_memory_broker_sga_grow_splitif_size n/a split sga target grow if atleast this many granules.  
_memory_broker_sga_shrink_chunk_size n/a if kmgsbshnkbrk set, sga request resize chunk size in granules.  
_memory_broker_sga_shrink_chunked n/a if TRUE, break a large sga shrink request to chunks  
_memory_broker_shrink_heaps memory broker allow policy to shrink shared pool  
_memory_broker_shrink_java_heaps memory broker allow policy to shrink java pool  
_memory_broker_shrink_streams_pool memory broker allow policy to shrink streams pool  
_memory_broker_shrink_timeout memory broker policy to timeout shrink shared/java pool  
_memory_broker_stat_interval memory broker statistics gathering interval for auto sga  
_memory_checkinuse_timeintv check inuse time interval  
_memory_imm_mode_without_autosga Allow immediate mode without sga/memory target  
_memory_initial_sga_split_perc Initial default sga target percentage with memory target  
_memory_management_tracing trace memory management activity  
_memory_max_tgt_inc_cnt counts the times checker increments memory target  
_memory_mgmt_fail_immreq always fail immediate mode request  
_memory_mgmt_immreq_timeout time in seconds to time out immediate mode request  
_memory_nocancel_defsgareq do not cancel deferred sga reqs with auto-memory  
_memory_sanity_check partial granule sanity check  
_merge_monitor_threshold n/a threshold for pushing information to MERGE monitoring  
_messages message queue resources - dependent on # processes & # buffers  
_mga_large_page_path n/a large page path  
_mgd_rcv_handle_orphan_datafiles Managed recovery handle orphan datafile situation  
_midtier_affinity_clusterwait_threshold n/a cluster wait threshold to enter affinity  
_midtier_affinity_cluswait_prc_threshold n/a cluster wait precentage threshold to enter affinity  
_midtier_affinity_goodness_threshold goodness gradient threshold to dissolve affinity  
_min_autotask_percentage n/a    
_min_lwt_lt n/a minimum low threshold for LWTs  
_min_spacebg_slaves n/a minimum space management background slaves  
_min_sys_percentage n/a    
_min_sys_process n/a minimum system processess  
_min_time_between_psp0_diag_secs n/a minimum time between PSP0 diagnostic used for flow control  
_min_undosegs_for_parallel_fptr n/a minimum undo segments for parallel first-pass recovery  
_minact_timeout n/a Configurable interval for minact-scn  
_minfree_plus max percentage of block space + minfree before we mark block full  
_minimal_stats_aggregation prohibit stats aggregation at compile/partition maintenance time  
_minimum_blocks_to_shrink minimum number freeable blocks for shrink to be present  
_minimum_db_flashback_retention Minimum flashback retention  
_minimum_extents_to_shrink minimum number freeable extents for shrink to be present  
_minmax_spacebg_slaves n/a min-max space management background slaves  
_mira_free_unused_buffers n/a free unused buffers when idle  
_mira_mark_archivelog_timeout n/a mira mark archive log as applied timeout  
_mira_num_local_buffers n/a Number of local buffers for multi instance media recovery  
_mira_num_receive_buffers n/a Number of receive buffers for multi instance media recovery  
_mira_rcv_catchup_buffers n/a Number of buffers to allocate before catch up  
_mira_rcv_max_buffers n/a Maximum number of outstanding buffers  
_mira_sender_process n/a Number of sender processes  
_mirror_redo_buffers Save buffers for debugging redo corruptions  
_mmv_query_rewrite_enabled allow rewrites with multiple MVs and/or base tables  
_modify_column_index_unusable n/a allow ALTER TABLE MODIFY(column) to violate index key length limit  
_modify_other_app_object n/a Parameter to allow modification of another application's object  
_module_action_old_length n/a Use module and action old length parameter  
_monitor_sql_stmt_length Monitor sql statement length  
_monitor_workload_interval n/a workload monitoring interval in hours  
_mpmt_enabled MPMT mode enabled  
_mpmt_enabled_backgrounds n/a mpmt enabled backgrounds  
_mpmt_fg_enabled n/a MPMT mode foreground enabled  
_mpmt_fthread_mode n/a MPMT - Fthreads Mode for FG/BG/ALL  
_mpmt_prefer_enabled n/a MPMT prefer mode enabled  
_mpmt_procs_per_osp n/a max procs per osp  
_mpmt_single_process_instance n/a MPMT - single process instance mode enabled  
_mpmt_use_fthread n/a MPMT - Use Fthreads  
_multi_instance_pmr force multi instance or single instance parallel recovery enable multi instance redo apply
_multi_join_key_table_lookup TRUE iff multi-join-key table lookup prefetch is enabled  
_multi_transaction_optimization_enabled n/a reduce SGA memory use during create of a partitioned table  
_multiple_char_set_cdb n/a Multiple character sets enabled in CDB  
_multiple_instance_recovery use multiple instances for media recovery  
_multiple_name_convert_patterns n/a apply multiple patterns on a name during file_name_convert in PDB  
_mutex_spin_count Mutex spin count  
_mutex_wait_scheme Mutex wait scheme  
_mutex_wait_time Mutex wait time  
_mv_access_compute_fresh_data n/a mv access compute fresh data  
_mv_add_log_placeholder add log placeholder  
_mv_cleanup_orphaned_metadata cleanup orphaned materialized view metadata  
_mv_complete_refresh_conventional use conventional INSERTs for MV complete refresh  
_mv_deferred_no_log_age_val avoid build deferred MV log age validate  
_mv_expression_extend_size MV expression extend size  
_mv_generalized_oj_refresh_opt enable/disable new algorithm for MJV with generalized outer joins  
_mv_refresh_ana what percent to analyze after complete/PCT refresh  
_mv_refresh_costing refresh decision based on cost or on rules  
_mv_refresh_delta_fraction delta mv as fractional percentage of size of mv  
_mv_refresh_enhanced_dml_detection enable enhanced detection of DML types from MV log  
_mv_refresh_eut refresh materialized views using EUT(partition)-based algorithm  
_mv_refresh_force_parallel_query force materialized view refreshes to use parallel query  
_mv_refresh_insert_no_append materialized view refresh using insert no append  
_mv_refresh_new_setup_disabled materialized view MV refresh new setup disabling  
_mv_refresh_no_idx_rebuild avoid index rebuild as part of the MV refresh  
_mv_refresh_pipe_timeout n/a timeout that MV refresh coordinator waits for a job pipe  
_mv_refresh_pkfk_data_units_opt control MV refresh based on the assumption of PK-FK data units  
_mv_refresh_pkfk_relationship_opt control MV refresh based on the use of PK-FK relationships  
_mv_refresh_rebuild_percentage minimum percentage change required in MV to force an indexrebuild  
_mv_refresh_selections create materialized views with selections and fast refresh  
_mv_refresh_shrink_log n/a materialized view refresh shrink MV log  
_mv_refresh_truncate_log n/a materialized view refresh truncate MV log  
_mv_refresh_update_analysis materialized view refresh using update analysis  
_mv_refresh_use_hash_sj use hash_sj hint in queries  
_mv_refresh_use_no_merge use no_merge hint in queries  
_mv_refresh_use_stats pass cardinality hints to refresh queries  
_mv_refsched_timeincr proportionality constant for dop vs. time in MV refresh  
_mv_rolling_inv create/alter mv uses rolling cursor invalidation instead of immediate create/alter mv uses rolling cursor invalidation instead of immediate
_mwin_schedule Enable/disable Maintenance Window Schedules  
_nameservice_consistency_check n/a NameService Consistency check switch  
_nameservice_request_batching n/a NameService request batching switch  
_nbr_recovery_max_request_size n/a the maximum size in MBs of a request for data blocks  
_nbr_recovery_target_bufs n/a the target number of oustanding buffers to maintain  
_nbr_recovery_timeout n/a seconds recovery will wait for any invalid block range to arrive  
_nchar_imp_cnv NLS allow Implicit Conversion between CHAR and NCHAR  
_nchar_imp_conv should implicit conversion bewteen clob and nclob be allowed  
_ncmb_readahead_enabled enable multi-block readahead for an index scan  
_ncmb_readahead_tracing turn on multi-block readahead tracing  
_ncomp_shared_objects_dir native compilation shared objects dir  
_nested_loop_fudge nested loop fudge  
_nested_mv_fast_oncommit_enabled nested MV refresh fast on commit allowed  
_net_timeout_latency n/a NET_TIMEOUT latency  
_new_initial_join_orders enable initial join orders based on new ordering heuristics  
_new_sort_cost_estimate enables the use of new cost estimate for sort  
_newsort_enabled controls whether new sorts can be used as system sort  
_newsort_ordered_pct controls when new sort avoids sorting ordered input  
_newsort_type specifies options for the new sort algorithm  
_next_pdbid n/a Hint for the next PDBID to use when creating a new PDB entry  
_nineteenth_spare_parameter nineteenth spare parameter - string nineteenth spare parameter - integer
_ninetieth_spare_parameter n/a ninetieth spare parameter - string  
_ninety-eighth_spare_parameter n/a ninety-eighth spare parameter - string  
_ninety-fifth_spare_parameter n/a ninety-fifth spare parameter - string  
_ninety-first_spare_parameter n/a ninety-first spare parameter - string  
_ninety-fourth_spare_parameter n/a ninety-fourth spare parameter - string  
_ninety-ninth_spare_parameter n/a ninety-ninth spare parameter - string  
_ninety-second_spare_parameter n/a ninety-second spare parameter - string  
_ninety-seventh_spare_parameter n/a ninety-seventh spare parameter - string  
_ninety-sixth_spare_parameter n/a ninety-sixth spare parameter - string  
_ninety-third_spare_parameter n/a ninety-third spare parameter - string  
_ninth_spare_parameter ninth spare parameter - integer  
_nlj_batching_ae_flag FAE flag type set after restoring to IO batching buffer  
_nlj_batching_enabled enable batching of the RHS IO in NLJ  
_nlj_batching_misses_enabled enable exceptions for buffer cache misses  
_nls_binary n/a force binary collation  
_nls_parameter_sync_enabled enables or disables updates to v$parameter whenever an alter session statement modifies various nls parameters  
_no_catalog n/a options whose schemas should not be created  
_no_objects no object features are used  
_no_or_expansion OR expansion during optimization disabled  
_no_recovery_through_resetlogs no recovery through this resetlogs operation  
_no_small_file n/a Not to apply new extent scheme for small file temp spaces  
_no_snapshot_root_clone n/a No snapshot clone during Application Root Clone creation  
_no_stale_joinback_rewrite No joinbacks if mv is stale  
_node_instcnt_average_interval n/a node inst count average interval in seconds  
_node_instcnt_sample_frequency n/a node inst count average sample frequency in seconds  
_node_instcnt_update_frequency n/a node inst count average global update frequency in seconds  
_nologging_apply_stall_time n/a milli-seconds recovery waits after DTC full before changing RCVID  
_nologging_block_cleanout_delay n/a Nologging standby: block cleanout delay (seconds)  
_nologging_fetch_demote_count n/a Nologging standby fetch demote count  
_nologging_fetch_initial_interval n/a seconds recovery waits between issuing fetches for old ranges  
_nologging_fetch_retry_interval_cold n/a Interval before fetch request for older invalid block range  
_nologging_fetch_retry_interval_hot n/a Interval before fetch request for recently created invalid block range  
_nologging_fetch_slv_wt n/a Nologging standby fetch slave wait time  
_nologging_kcnbuf_hash_buckets n/a Number of nologging buffer hash buckets  
_nologging_kcnbuf_hash_latches n/a Number of nologging buffer hash latches  
_nologging_load_slotsz n/a Nologging standby: direct load buffer size  
_nologging_mode_override n/a Override the database logging mode; 1=Force, 2=NoForce, 3=LP, 4=DA  
_nologging_progress_keep_alive n/a Nologging standby progress keep alive time  
_nologging_sdcl_append_wait n/a Nologging standby append sdcl wait time  
_nologging_sendbuf_ratio n/a Nologging standby: outstanding send buffer ratio  
_nologging_slots n/a Nologging standby: initial buffer count  
_nologging_standby_cold_buffer_timeout n/a Centi-seconds recovery will wait for a buffer that is not being sent by a direct load client in Nologging Standby Data Availability mode  
_nologging_standby_dtc_expire n/a The number of seconds a Data Transfer Cache buffer may remain unclaimed  
_nologging_standby_fetch_disable n/a controls whether invalid block ranges are fecthed during recovery  
_nologging_standby_hot_buffer_timeout n/a Centi-seconds recovery will wait for a buffer being sent by a direct load client in Nologging Standby Data Availabilty mode  
_nologging_standby_refetch_disable n/a controls fetching of pre-existing invalid block ranges during standby recovery  
_nologging_txn_cmt_wait n/a Nologging standby transaction commit wait time  
_nologging_txn_history_to_sessions_percent n/a Ratio, as a percentage, of sessions to set X$KCNT max. size  
_non_app_ignore_errors n/a ignore errors during containers() on non-application object  
_nonce_history_buffer_size n/a Size of Nonce History Buffer  
_nonfatalprocess_redo_dump_time_limit n/a time limit, in secs, for diagnostic redo dumps by a non-fatal process  
_noseg_for_unusable_index_enabled no segments for unusable indexes if set to TRUE  
_notify_crs notify cluster ready services of startup and shutdown  
_ns_max_flush_wt Flush wait time for NetServer to flush oustanding writes  
_ns_max_send_delay Data Loss Time Bound for NetServer  
_num_longop_child_latches number of child latches for long op array  
_num_rlslaves n/a number of rl slaves to clear orls  
_numa_buffer_cache_stats Configure NUMA buffer cache stats  
_numa_shift_enabled Enable NUMA shift  
_numa_shift_value user defined value for numa nodes shift  
_numa_trace_level numa trace event  
_number_cached_attributes maximum number of cached attributes per instance  
_number_cached_group_memberships maximum number of cached group memberships  
_number_group_memberships_per_cache_line n/a maximum number of group memberships per cache line  
_number_of_undo_blocks_to_prefetch n/a number of undo blocks to prefetch  
_nvm_dispatcher_bind_policy n/a NVM Dispatcher binding policy  
_nvm_dispatchers n/a number of NVM Dispatcher Slaves  
_obj_ckpt_tracing Enable object checkpoint tracing  
_object_link_fixed_enabled n/a object linked views evaluated using fixed table  
_object_linked_remote n/a Enable remote transformation of Object Linked table  
_object_number_cache_size Object number cache size  
_object_reuse_bast if 1 or higher, handle object reuse  
_object_statistics enable the object level statistics collection  
_object_stats_max_entries Maximum number of entries to be tracked per stat  
_odci_aggregate_save_space n/a trade speed for space in user-defined aggregation  
_odci_index_pmo_rebuild n/a domain index running pmo rebuild  
_offline_rollback_segments offline undo segment list  
_ofs_write_buffer_size n/a OFS write buffer size in bytes  
_ogms_home GMS home directory  
_olap_adv_comp_stats_cc_precomp do additional predicate stats analysis for AW rowsource  
_olap_adv_comp_stats_max_rows do additional predicate stats analysis for AW rowsource  
_olap_aggregate_buffer_size OLAP Aggregate max buffer size  
_olap_aggregate_flags OLAP Aggregate debug flags  
_olap_aggregate_function_cache_enabled OLAP Aggregate function cache enabler OLAP Aggregate function cache enabled
_olap_aggregate_max_thread_tuples OLAP Aggregate max thread tuples creation  
_olap_aggregate_min_buffer_size OLAP Aggregate min buffer size  
_olap_aggregate_min_thread_status OLAP Aggregate minimum cardinality of dimensions for thread  
_olap_aggregate_multipath_hier OLAP Aggregate Multi-path Hierarhies enabled  
_olap_aggregate_statlen_thresh OLAP Aggregate status array usage threshold  
_olap_aggregate_work_per_thread OLAP Aggregate max work parents  
_olap_aggregate_worklist_max OLAP Aggregate max worklists generated at once  
_olap_allocate_errorlog_format OLAP Allocate Errorlog Format  
_olap_allocate_errorlog_header OLAP Allocate Errorlog Header format  
_olap_analyze_max OLAP DML ANALYZE command max cells to analyze  
_olap_continuous_trace_file OLAP logging definition  
_olap_dbgoutfile_echo_to_eventlog OLAP DbgOutfile copy output to event log (tracefile)  
_olap_dimension_corehash_force OLAP Dimension In-Core Hash Table Force  
_olap_dimension_corehash_large OLAP Dimension In-Core Hash Table Large Threshold  
_olap_dimension_corehash_pressure OLAP Dimension In-Core Hash Table Pressure Threshold  
_olap_dimension_corehash_size OLAP Dimension In-Core Hash Table Maximum Memory Use  
_olap_disable_loop_optimized n/a Disable LOOP OPTIMIZED directive in OLAP_TABLE  
_olap_eif_export_lob_size OLAP EIF Export BLOB size  
_olap_lmgen_dim_size Limitmap generator dimension column size  
_olap_lmgen_meas_size Limitmap generator measure column size  
_olap_object_hash_class OLAP Object Hash Table Class  
_olap_page_pool_expand_rate OLAP Page Pool Expand Rate  
_olap_page_pool_hi OLAP Page Pool High Watermark  
_olap_page_pool_hit_target OLAP Page Pool Hit Target  
_olap_page_pool_low OLAP Page Pool Low Watermark  
_olap_page_pool_pressure OLAP Page Pool Pressure Threshold  
_olap_page_pool_shrink_rate OLAP Page Pool Shrink Rate  
_olap_parallel_update_server_num OLAP parallel update server count  
_olap_parallel_update_small_threshold OLAP parallel update threshold for number of small pagespaces  
_olap_parallel_update_threshold OLAP parallel update threshold in pages  
_olap_row_load_time_precision n/a OLAP Row Load Time Precision  
_olap_sesscache_enabled OLAP Session Cache knob  
_olap_sort_buffer_pct OLAP Sort Buffer Size Percentage  
_olap_sort_buffer_size OLAP Sort Buffer Size  
_olap_statbool_corebits OLAP Status Boolean max incore bits  
_olap_statbool_threshold OLAP Status Boolean CBM threshold  
_olap_table_function_statistics Specify TRUE to output OLAP table function timed statistics trace  
_olap_wrap_errors Wrap error messages to OLAP outfile  
_olapi_history_retention enable olapi history retention  
_olapi_iface_object_history enable olapi interface object history collection  
_olapi_iface_object_history_retention enable olapi interface object history retention  
_olapi_iface_operation_history_retention enable olapi interface operation history retention  
_olapi_interface_operation_history enable olapi interface operation history collection  
_olapi_memory_operation_history enable olapi memory alloc/free history collection  
_olapi_memory_operation_history_pause_at_seqno enable olapi memory alloc/free history collection pausing  
_olapi_memory_operation_history_retention enable olapi memory operation history retention  
_olapi_session_history enable olapi session history collection  
_olapi_session_history_retention enable olapi session history retention  
_old_connect_by_enabled enable/disable old connect by  
_old_extent_scheme n/a Revert to old extent allocation  
_ols_cleanup_task Clean up unnecessary entries in OLS sessinfo table  
_oltp_comp_dbg_scan n/a oltp compression scan debug  
_oltp_compress_dbg n/a oltp compression debug  
_oltp_compression oltp compression enabled  
_oltp_compression_gain oltp compression gain  
_oltp_spill n/a spill rows for oltp compression if loader pga limit is exceeded  
_omf enable/disable OMF  
_omni_enqueue_enable n/a Enable Omni Enqueue feature (0 = disable, 1 = enable on ASM (default), 2 = enable)  
_one-hundred-and-eighteenth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eighteenth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-eighth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eighth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-eightieth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eightieth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-eighty-eighth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eighty-eighth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-eighty-fifth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eighty-fifth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-eighty-first_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eighty-first spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-eighty-fourth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eighty-fourth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-eighty-ninth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eighty-ninth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-eighty-second_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eighty-second spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-eighty-seventh_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eighty-seventh spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-eighty-sixth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eighty-sixth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-eighty-third_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eighty-third spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-eleventh_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-eleventh spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-fifteenth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fifteenth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-fifth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fifth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-fiftieth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fiftieth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-fifty-eighth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fifty-eighth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-fifty-fifth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fifty-fifth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-fifty-first_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fifty-first spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-fifty-fourth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fifty-fourth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-fifty-ninth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fifty-ninth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-fifty-second_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fifty-second spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-fifty-seventh_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fifty-seventh spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fifty-sixth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-fifty-third_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fifty-third spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-first_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-first spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-fortieth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fortieth spare parameter - string list  
_one-hundred-and-forty-eighth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-forty-eighth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-forty-fifth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-forty-fifth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-forty-fourth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-forty-fourth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-forty-ninth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-forty-ninth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-forty-seventh_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-forty-seventh spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-forty-sixth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-forty-sixth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-fourteenth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fourteenth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-fourth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-fourth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-nineteenth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-nineteenth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-ninetieth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-ninetieth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-ninety-eighth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-ninety-eighth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-ninety-fifth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-ninety-fifth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-ninety-first_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-ninety-first spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-ninety-fourth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-ninety-fourth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-ninety-ninth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-ninety-ninth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-ninety-second_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-ninety-second spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-ninety-seventh_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-ninety-seventh spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-ninety-sixth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-ninety-sixth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-ninety-third_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-ninety-third spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-ninth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-ninth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-second_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-second spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-seventeenth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-seventeenth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-seventh_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-seventh spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-seventieth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-seventieth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-seventy-eighth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-seventy-eighth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-seventy-fifth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-seventy-fifth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-seventy-first_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-seventy-first spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-seventy-fourth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-seventy-fourth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-seventy-ninth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-seventy-ninth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-seventy-second_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-seventy-second spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-seventy-seventh_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-seventy-seventh spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-seventy-sixth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-seventy-sixth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-seventy-third_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-seventy-third spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-sixteenth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-sixteenth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-sixth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-sixth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-sixtieth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-sixtieth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-sixty-eighth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-sixty-eighth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-sixty-fifth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-sixty-fifth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-sixty-first_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-sixty-first spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-sixty-fourth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-sixty-fourth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-sixty-ninth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-sixty-ninth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-sixty-second_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-sixty-second spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-sixty-seventh_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-sixty-seventh spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-sixty-sixth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-sixty-sixth spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-sixty-third_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-sixty-third spare parameter - boolean  
_one-hundred-and-tenth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-tenth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-third_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-third spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-thirteenth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-thirteenth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-thirtieth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-thirtieth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-thirty-eighth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-thirty-eighth spare parameter - string list  
_one-hundred-and-thirty-fifth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-thirty-fifth spare parameter - string list  
_one-hundred-and-thirty-first_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-thirty-first spare parameter - string list  
_one-hundred-and-thirty-fourth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-thirty-fourth spare parameter - string list  
_one-hundred-and-thirty-ninth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-thirty-ninth spare parameter - string list  
_one-hundred-and-thirty-second_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-thirty-second spare parameter - string list  
_one-hundred-and-thirty-seventh_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-thirty-seventh spare parameter - string list  
_one-hundred-and-thirty-sixth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-thirty-sixth spare parameter - string list  
_one-hundred-and-thirty-third_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-thirty-third spare parameter - string list  
_one-hundred-and-twelfth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-twelfth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-twentieth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-twentieth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-twenty-eighth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-twenty-eighth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-twenty-fifth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-twenty-fifth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-twenty-first_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-twenty-first spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-twenty-fourth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-twenty-fourth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-twenty-ninth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-twenty-ninth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-twenty-second_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-twenty-second spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-twenty-seventh_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-twenty-seventh spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-twenty-sixth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-twenty-sixth spare parameter - string  
_one-hundred-and-twenty-third_spare_parameter n/a one-hundred-and-twenty-third spare parameter - string  
_one-hundredth_spare_parameter n/a one-hundredth spare parameter - string  
_oneside_colstat_for_equijoins sanity check on default selectivity for like/range predicate  
_online_ctas_diag n/a controls dumping diagnostic information for online ctas  
_online_file_conversion_batchsize n/a Online datafile move/conversion sync batchsize  
_online_patch_disable_stack_check disable check for function on stack for online patches  
_ops_per_semop the exact number of operations per semop system call  
_optim_adjust_for_part_skews adjust stats for skews across partitions  
_optim_dict_stats_at_db_cr_upg enable/disable dictionary stats gathering at db create/upgrade  
_optim_enhance_nnull_detection TRUE to enable index [fast] full scan more often  
_optim_new_default_join_sel improves the way default equijoin selectivity are computed  
_optim_peek_user_binds enable peeking of user binds  
_optimizer_adaptive_cursor_sharing optimizer adaptive cursor sharing  
_optimizer_adaptive_plan_control n/a internal controls for adaptive plans  
_optimizer_adaptive_plans_continuous n/a enable continuously adaptive plans  
_optimizer_adaptive_plans_iterative n/a enable iterative adaptive plans  
_optimizer_adaptive_random_seed n/a random seed for adaptive plans  
_optimizer_adjust_for_nulls adjust selectivity for null values  
_optimizer_ads_for_pq n/a use ADS for parallel queries  
_optimizer_ads_max_table_count maximum number of tables in a join under ADS  
_optimizer_ads_result_cache_life n/a result cache shelf life for ADS queries  
_optimizer_ads_spd_cache_owner_limit n/a Maximum number of directives under an owner in SPD cache  
_optimizer_ads_time_limit maximum time limit (seconds) under ADS  
_optimizer_ads_use_partial_results n/a Use partial results of ADS queries  
_optimizer_ads_use_result_cache use result cache for ADS queries  
_optimizer_ads_use_spd_cache n/a use Sql Plan Directives for caching ADS queries  
_optimizer_aggr_groupby_elim n/a group-by and aggregation elimination  
_optimizer_allow_all_access_paths n/a allow all access paths  
_optimizer_ansi_join_lateral_enhance n/a optimization of left/full ansi-joins and lateral views  
_optimizer_ansi_rearchitecture n/a re-architecture of ANSI left, right, and full outer joins  
_optimizer_answering_query_using_stats n/a enable statistics-based query transformation  
_optimizer_auto_index_allow n/a Controls Auto Index  
_optimizer_autostats_job enable/disable auto stats collection job  
_optimizer_aw_join_push_enabled Enables AW Join Push optimization  
_optimizer_aw_stats_enabled Enables statistcs on AW olap_table table function  
_optimizer_band_join_aware n/a enable the detection of band join by the optimizer  
_optimizer_batch_table_access_by_rowid n/a enable table access by ROWID IO batching  
_optimizer_better_inlist_costing enable improved costing of index access using in-list(s)  
_optimizer_block_size standard block size used by optimizer  
_optimizer_bushy_cost_factor n/a cost factor for bushy join  
_optimizer_bushy_fact_dim_ratio n/a bushy join dimension to fact ratio  
_optimizer_bushy_fact_min_size n/a minimumm fact size for bushy join  
_optimizer_bushy_join n/a enables bushy join  
_optimizer_cache_stats cost with cache statistics  
_optimizer_cartesian_enabled optimizer cartesian join enabled  
_optimizer_cbqt_factor cost factor for cost-based query transformation  
_optimizer_cbqt_no_size_restriction disable cost based transformation query size restriction  
_optimizer_cbqt_or_expansion n/a enables cost based OR expansion  
_optimizer_ceil_cost CEIL cost in CBO  
_optimizer_cluster_by_rowid enable/disable the cluster by rowid feature  
_optimizer_cluster_by_rowid_batch_size n/a Sorting batch size for cluster by rowid feature  
_optimizer_cluster_by_rowid_batched n/a enable/disable the cluster by rowid batching feature  
_optimizer_cluster_by_rowid_control internal control for cluster by rowid feature mode  
_optimizer_coalesce_subqueries consider coalescing of subqueries optimization  
_optimizer_compare_plans_control n/a compare plans controls for testing  
_optimizer_complex_pred_selectivity enable selectivity estimation for builtin functions  
_optimizer_compute_index_stats force index stats collection on index creation/rebuild  
_optimizer_connect_by_cb_whr_only use cost-based transformation for whr clause in connect by  
_optimizer_connect_by_combine_sw combine no filtering connect by and start with  
_optimizer_connect_by_cost_based use cost-based transformation for connect by  
_optimizer_connect_by_elim_dups allow connect by to eliminate duplicates from input  
_optimizer_control_shard_qry_processing n/a control shard query processing  
_optimizer_correct_sq_selectivity force correct computation of subquery selectivity  
_optimizer_cost_based_transformation enables cost-based query transformation  
_optimizer_cost_filter_pred enables costing of filter predicates in IO cost model  
_optimizer_cost_hjsmj_multimatch add cost of generating result set when #rows per key > 1  
_optimizer_cost_model optimizer cost model  
_optimizer_cube_join_enabled n/a enable cube join  
_optimizer_db_blocks_buffers n/a optimizer value for _db_blocks_buffers  
_optimizer_degree force the optimizer to use the same degree of parallelism  
_optimizer_dim_subq_join_sel use join selectivity in choosing star transformation dimensions  
_optimizer_disable_strans_sanity_checks disable star transformation sanity checks  
_optimizer_distinct_agg_transform Transforms Distinct Aggregates to non-distinct aggregates  
_optimizer_distinct_elimination Eliminates redundant SELECT DISTNCT's  
_optimizer_distinct_placement consider distinct placement optimization  
_optimizer_dsdir_usage_control n/a controls optimizer usage of dynamic sampling directives  
_optimizer_dyn_smp_blks number of blocks for optimizer dynamic sampling  
_optimizer_eliminate_filtering_join optimizer filtering join elimination enabled  
_optimizer_eliminate_subquery n/a consider elimination of subquery optimization  
_optimizer_enable_density_improvements use improved density computation for selectivity estimation  
_optimizer_enable_extended_stats use extended statistics for selectivity estimation  
_optimizer_enable_plsql_stats n/a Use statistics of plsql functions  
_optimizer_enable_table_lookup_by_nl consider table lookup by nl transformation  
_optimizer_enhanced_filter_push push filters before trying cost-based query transformation  
_optimizer_enhanced_join_elimination n/a Enhanced(12.2) join elimination  
_optimizer_extend_jppd_view_types join pred pushdown on group-by, distinct, semi-/anti-joined view  
_optimizer_extended_cursor_sharing optimizer extended cursor sharing  
_optimizer_extended_cursor_sharing_rel optimizer extended cursor sharing for relational operators  
_optimizer_extended_stats_usage_control controls the optimizer usage of extended stats  
_optimizer_false_filter_pred_pullup optimizer false predicate pull up transformation  
_optimizer_fast_access_pred_analysis use fast algorithm to traverse predicates for physical optimizer  
_optimizer_fast_pred_transitivity use fast algorithm to generate transitive predicates  
_optimizer_feedback_control controls the optimizer feedback framework  
_optimizer_filter_pred_pullup use cost-based flter predicate pull up transformation  
_optimizer_filter_pushdown enable/disable filter predicate pushdown  
_optimizer_fkr_index_cost_bias Optimizer index bias over FTS/IFFS under first K rows mode  
_optimizer_force_CBQT force CBQT transformation regardless of cost  
_optimizer_free_transformation_heap free transformation subheap after each transformation  
_optimizer_full_outer_join_to_outer enable/disable full outer to left outer join conversion  
_optimizer_gather_feedback n/a optimizer gather feedback  
_optimizer_gather_stats_on_conventional_config n/a settings for optimizer online stats gathering on conventional DML  
_optimizer_gather_stats_on_conventional_dml n/a optimizer online stats gathering for conventional DML  
_optimizer_gather_stats_on_load n/a enable/disable online statistics gathering  
_optimizer_gather_stats_on_load_all n/a enable/disable online statistics gathering for nonempty segments  
_optimizer_gather_stats_on_load_hist n/a enable/disable online histogram gathering for loads  
_optimizer_gather_stats_on_load_index n/a enable/disable online index stats gathering for loads  
_optimizer_generate_ptf_implied_preds n/a Generate implied predicates for PTF  
_optimizer_generate_transitive_pred n/a optimizer generate transitive predicates  
_optimizer_group_by_placement consider group-by placement optimization  
_optimizer_hll_entry n/a number of entries in hll hash table  
_optimizer_hybrid_fpwj_enabled n/a enable hybrid full partition-wise join when TRUE  
_optimizer_ignore_hints n/a enables the embedded hints to be ignored  
_optimizer_improve_selectivity improve table and partial overlap join selectivity computation  
_optimizer_inmemory_access_path n/a optimizer access path costing for in-memory  
_optimizer_inmemory_autodop n/a optimizer autoDOP costing for in-memory  
_optimizer_inmemory_bloom_filter n/a controls serial bloom filter for in-memory tables  
_optimizer_inmemory_capture_stored_stats n/a optimizer capture and store statistics for in-memory tables  
_optimizer_inmemory_cluster_aware_dop n/a Affinitize DOP for inmemory objects  
_optimizer_inmemory_gen_pushable_preds n/a optimizer generate pushable predicates for in-memory  
_optimizer_inmemory_minmax_pruning n/a controls use of min/max pruning for costing in-memory tables  
_optimizer_inmemory_pruning_ratio_rows n/a in-memory pruning ratio for # rows (% of rows remaining after pruning)  
_optimizer_inmemory_quotient n/a in-memory quotient (% of rows in in-memory format)  
_optimizer_inmemory_table_expansion n/a optimizer in-memory awareness for table expansion  
_optimizer_inmemory_use_stored_stats n/a optimizer use stored statistics for in-memory tables  
_optimizer_instance_count force the optimizer to use the specified number of instances  
_optimizer_interleave_jppd interleave join predicate pushdown during CBQT  
_optimizer_interleave_or_expansion n/a interleave OR Expansion during CBQT  
_optimizer_invalidation_period time window for invalidation of cursors of analyzed objects  
_optimizer_join_elimination_enabled optimizer join elimination enabled  
_optimizer_join_factorization use join factorization transformation  
_optimizer_join_order_control controls the optimizer join order search algorithm  
_optimizer_join_sel_sanity_check enable/disable sanity check for multi-column join selectivity  
_optimizer_key_vector_aggr_factor n/a the required aggregation between IJK and DGK  
_optimizer_key_vector_payload n/a enables or disables dimension payloads in vector transform  
_optimizer_key_vector_payload_dim_aggs n/a enables or disables dimension payloading of aggregates in VT  
_optimizer_key_vector_pruning_enabled n/a enables or disables key vector partition pruning  
_optimizer_key_vector_use_max_size n/a maximum key vector use size (in KB)  
_optimizer_max_permutations optimizer maximum join permutations per query block  
_optimizer_min_cache_blocks set minimum cached blocks  
_optimizer_mjc_enabled enable merge join cartesian  
_optimizer_mode_force force setting of optimizer mode for user recursive SQL also  
_optimizer_multi_level_push_pred consider join-predicate pushdown that requires multi-level pushdown to base table  
_optimizer_multi_table_outerjoin n/a allows multiple tables on the left of outerjoin  
_optimizer_multicol_join_elimination n/a eliminate multi-column key based joins  
_optimizer_multiple_cenv generate and run plans using several compilation environments  
_optimizer_multiple_cenv_report control what to report in trace file when run in multi-plan mode  
_optimizer_multiple_cenv_stmt control the types of statements that are run in multi-plan mode  
_optimizer_native_full_outer_join execute full outer join using native implementaion  
_optimizer_nested_rollup_for_gset number of groups above which we use nested rollup exec for gset  
_optimizer_new_join_card_computation compute join cardinality using non-rounded input values  
_optimizer_nlj_hj_adaptive_join n/a allow adaptive NL Hash joins  
_optimizer_non_blocking_hard_parse n/a enable non-blocking hard parse  
_optimizer_null_accepting_semijoin n/a enables null-accepting semijoin  
_optimizer_null_aware_antijoin null-aware antijoin parameter  
_optimizer_or_expansion control or expansion approach used  
_optimizer_or_expansion_subheap Use subheap for optimizer or-expansion  
_optimizer_order_by_elimination_enabled Eliminates order bys from views before query transformation  
_optimizer_outer_join_to_inner enable/disable outer to inner join conversion  
_optimizer_outer_to_anti_enabled Enable transformation of outer-join to anti-join if possible  
_optimizer_partial_join_eval n/a partial join evaluation parameter  
_optimizer_percent_parallel optimizer percent parallel  
_optimizer_performance_feedback n/a controls the performance feedback  
_optimizer_proc_rate_level n/a control the level of processing rates  
_optimizer_proc_rate_source n/a control the source of processing rates  
_optimizer_purge_stats_iteration_row_count number of rows to be deleted at each iteration of the stats purging process  
_optimizer_push_down_distinct push down distinct from query block to table  
_optimizer_push_pred_cost_based use cost-based query transformation for push pred optimization  
_optimizer_quarantine_sql n/a enable use of sql quarantine  
_optimizer_random_plan optimizer seed value for random plans  
_optimizer_reduce_groupby_key n/a group-by key reduction  
_optimizer_reuse_cost_annotations reuse cost annotations during cost-based query transformation  
_optimizer_rownum_bind_default Default value to use for rownum bind  
_optimizer_rownum_pred_based_fkr enable the use of first K rows due to rownum predicate  
_optimizer_save_stats enable/disable saving old versions of optimizer stats  
_optimizer_search_limit optimizer search limit  
_optimizer_self_induced_cache_cost account for self-induced caching  
_optimizer_skip_scan_enabled enable/disable index skip scan  
_optimizer_skip_scan_guess consider index skip scan for predicates with guessed selectivity  
_optimizer_sortmerge_join_enabled enable/disable sort-merge join method  
_optimizer_sortmerge_join_inequality enable/disable sort-merge join using inequality predicates  
_optimizer_squ_bottomup enables unnesting of subquery in a bottom-up manner  
_optimizer_star_tran_in_with_clause enable/disable star transformation in with clause queries  
_optimizer_star_trans_min_cost optimizer star transformation minimum cost  
_optimizer_star_trans_min_ratio optimizer star transformation minimum ratio  
_optimizer_starplan_enabled optimizer star plan enabled  
_optimizer_stats_on_conventional_dml_sample_rate n/a sampling rate for online stats gathering on conventional DML  
_optimizer_strans_adaptive_pruning n/a allow adaptive pruning of star transformation bitmap trees  
_optimizer_synopsis_min_size n/a minimal synopsis size (kb)  
_optimizer_system_stats_usage system statistics usage  
_optimizer_table_expansion consider table expansion transformation  
_optimizer_trace optimizer trace parameter  
_optimizer_track_hint_usage n/a enable tracking of optimizer hint usage  
_optimizer_transitivity_retain retain equi-join pred upon transitive equality pred generation  
_optimizer_try_st_before_jppd try Star Transformation before Join Predicate Push Down  
_optimizer_undo_changes undo changes to query optimizer  
_optimizer_undo_cost_change optimizer undo cost change  
_optimizer_union_all_gsets n/a Use Union All Optimization for Grouping Sets  
_optimizer_unnest_all_subqueries enables unnesting of every type of subquery  
_optimizer_unnest_corr_set_subq Unnesting of correlated set subqueries (TRUE/FALSE)  
_optimizer_unnest_disjunctive_subq Unnesting of disjunctive subqueries (TRUE/FALSE)  
_optimizer_unnest_scalar_sq n/a enables unnesting of of scalar subquery  
_optimizer_use_auto_indexes n/a Use Auto Index  
_optimizer_use_cbqt_star_transformation use rewritten star transformation using cbqt framework  
_optimizer_use_feedback optimizer use feedback  
_optimizer_use_feedback_for_join n/a optimizer use feedback for join  
_optimizer_use_gtt_session_stats n/a use GTT session private statistics  
_optimizer_use_histograms n/a enable/disable the usage of histograms by the optimizer  
_optimizer_use_stats_on_conventional_config n/a settings for optimizer usage of online stats on conventional DML  
_optimizer_use_stats_on_conventional_dml n/a use optimizer statistics gathered for conventional DML  
_optimizer_use_subheap Enables physical optimizer subheap  
_optimizer_use_table_scanrate n/a Use Table Specific Scan Rate  
_optimizer_use_xt_rowid n/a Use external table rowid  
_optimizer_vector_base_dim_fact_factor n/a cost based vector transform base dimension to base fact ratio  
_optimizer_vector_cost_adj n/a cost adjustment for vector aggregation processing estimates  
_optimizer_vector_fact_dim_ratio n/a cost based vector transform dimension to fact ratio  
_optimizer_vector_fact_payload_ratio n/a cost based vector transform payload dimension to fact ratio  
_optimizer_vector_min_fact_rows n/a min number of rows required for vector aggregation transform  
_optimizer_vector_transformation n/a perform vector transform  
_or_expand_nvl_predicate enable OR expanded plan for NVL/DECODE predicate  
_oracle_employee_testing n/a Switch on all features for the purpose of testing  
_oracle_script n/a Running an Oracle-supplied script  
_oracle_special_license_1_granted n/a gsm spare 1  
_oradbg_pathname path of oradbg script  
_oradebug_cmds_at_startup oradebug commands to execute at instance startup  
_oradebug_force force target processes to execute oradebug commands?  
_ordered_nested_loop enable ordered nested loop costing  
_ordered_semijoin enable ordered semi-join subquery  
_orph_cln_interval qmon periodic interval for removed subscriber messages cleanup  
_os_sched_high_priority OS high priority level  
_os_sched_highest_priority n/a OS highest priority level  
_oss_skgxp_udp_dynamic_credit_mgmt OSSLIB enable[!0]/disable[0] dynamic credit mgmt for SKGXP-UDP OSSLIB set dynamic credit for SKGXP-UDP
_other_wait_event_exclusion exclude event names from _other_wait_threshold calculations  
_other_wait_threshold threshold wait percentage for event wait class Other  
_outline_bitmap_tree BITMAP_TREE hint enabled in outline  
_override_datafile_encrypt_check n/a if TRUE, override datafile tablespace encryption cross check  
_parallel_adaptive_max_users maximum number of users running with default DOP  
_parallel_blackbox_enabled parallel execution blackbox enabled  
_parallel_blackbox_sga n/a true if blackbox will be allocated in SGA, false if PGA  
_parallel_blackbox_size parallel execution blackbox bucket size  
_parallel_broadcast_enabled enable broadcasting of small inputs to hash and sort merge joins  
_parallel_cluster_cache_pct max percentage of the global buffer cache to use for affinity  
_parallel_cluster_cache_policy policy used for parallel execution on cluster(ADAPTIVE/CACHED)  
_parallel_conservative_queuing conservative parallel statement queuing  
_parallel_ctas_enabled n/a enable/disable parallel CTAS operation  
_parallel_default_max_instances default maximum number of instances for parallel query  
_parallel_degree_level n/a adjust the computed degree in percentage  
_parallel_execution_message_align Alignment of PX buffers to OS page boundary  
_parallel_fake_class_pct fake db-scheduler percent used for testing  
_parallel_fault_tolerance_enabled n/a enables or disables fault-tolerance for parallel statement  
_parallel_fault_tolerance_threshold n/a total number of faults fault-tolerance will handle  
_parallel_fixwrite_bucket Number of buckets for each round of fix write  
_parallel_heartbeat_snapshot_interval interval of snapshot to track px msging between instances  
_parallel_heartbeat_snapshot_max maximum number of historical snapshots archived  
_parallel_inmemory_min_time_threshold n/a threshold above which a plan is a candidate for parallelization for in-memory tables (in seconds)  
_parallel_inmemory_time_unit n/a unit of work used to derive the degree of parallelism for in-memory tables (in seconds)  
_parallel_lmd_reconfig n/a parallel lmd work in reconfiguration for enqueues.  
_parallel_load_bal_unit number of threads to allocate per instance  
_parallel_load_balancing parallel execution load balanced slave allocation  
_parallel_load_publish_threshold diffrence in percentage controlling px load propagation diffrence in percentage controlling px load propagation
_parallel_log_write_cleanup n/a Perform (null) log write cleanup in parallel  
_parallel_min_message_pool minimum size of shared pool memory to reserve for pq servers  
_parallel_optimization_phase_for_local parallel optimization phase when all slaves are local  
_parallel_queuing_max_waitingtime parallel statement queuing: max waiting time in queue  
_parallel_recovery_stopat stop at -position- to step through SMON  
_parallel_replay_msg_limit Number of messages for each round of parallel replay  
_parallel_scalability Parallel scalability criterion for parallel execution  
_parallel_server_idle_time idle time before parallel query server dies (in 1/100 sec)  
_parallel_server_sleep_time sleep time between dequeue timeouts (in 1/100ths)  
_parallel_slave_acquisition_wait time(in seconds) to wait before retrying slave acquisition  
_parallel_statement_queuing parallel statement queuing enabled  
_parallel_stmt_critical_cgs n/a parallel stmt critical cgs  
_parallel_syspls_obey_force TRUE to obey force parallel query/dml/ddl under System PL/SQL  
_parallel_time_unit unit of work used to derive the degree of parallelism (in seconds)  
_parallel_txn_global enable parallel_txn hint with updates and deletes  
_parallelism_cost_fudge_factor set the parallelism cost fudge factor  
_parameter_spfile_sync n/a SPFILE sync mode  
_parameter_table_block_size parameter table block size  
_part_access_version_by_number use version numbers to access versioned objects for partitioning  
_part_redef_global_index_update n/a online partition redefinition update global indexes  
_partial_comp_enabled n/a partial table compression enabled  
_partial_pwise_join_enabled enable partial partition-wise join when TRUE  
_partition_advisor_srs_active n/a enables sampling based partitioning validation  
_partition_by_con_name n/a enable partitioning by con$name  
_partition_cdb_view_enabled n/a partitioned cdb view evaluation enabled  
_partition_large_extents Enables large extent allocation for partitioned tables  
_partition_read_only n/a bypass all read only check for partition  
_partition_view_enabled enable/disable partitioned views  
_passwordfile_enqueue_timeout password file enqueue timeout in seconds  
_pbkdf2_sder_count n/a The PBKDF2 count to use for session key derivation  
_pct_refresh_double_count_prevented materialized view PCT refreshes avoid double counting  
_pdb_auto_save_state n/a Save pdb state automatically on state change on a given instance  
_pdb_auto_undots_create_off n/a disable automatic creation of undo tablespace in local undo mode  
_pdb_cluster_database n/a This parameter can be turned-off when cluster_database is TRUE  
_pdb_failure_testing n/a Testing failure in pluggable database related operations  
_pdb_first_script n/a Running a script that is PDB-first/ROOT-last  
_pdb_hash_table_latches n/a number of PDB hash table latches  
_pdb_hash_table_size n/a number of buckets in PDB hash table  
_pdb_ignore_table_clauses n/a Ignore subset of clauses in CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE  
_pdb_inherit_cfd n/a Automatically enable CREATE_FILE_DEST clause in the PDB  
_pdb_isolation_class n/a PDB isolation level: NONE, HIGH or MAX  
_pdb_ldp_cascade n/a pluggable database lockdown profile cascade param  
_pdb_lockdown_bypass_sr n/a special run lockdown parameter  
_pdb_lockdown_ddl_clauses n/a pluggable database lockdown clauses for statements  
_pdb_lrg_auto_undots_create n/a enable automatic creation of undo tablespace in local undo mode  
_pdb_mask_cdb_info n/a Enable masking CDB information within a PDB  
_pdb_max_audit_size n/a Default value for MAX_AUDIT_SIZE property in new PDB creation  
_pdb_max_diag_size n/a Default value for MAX_DIAG_SIZE property in new PDB creation  
_pdb_max_size_discount n/a Discount percentable on PDB Max space usage  
_pdb_name_case_sensitive n/a Keeps PDB name case sensitive  
_pdb_seed_mcsc n/a Allow PDB SEED to have different character set than the CDB.  
_pdb_service_on_root_listener n/a pdb services on CDB ROOT listeners  
_pdb_strict_plugin_compat n/a Pluggable database strict plugin compatibility  
_pdb_use_sequence_cache n/a Use sequence cache in PDB mode  
_pdb_vm_max_size n/a PDB SGA maximum virtual memory size  
_pdml_gim_sampling control separation of global index maintenance for PDML  
_pdml_gim_staggered slaves start on different index when doing index maint  
_pdml_slaves_diff_part slaves start on different partition when doing index maint  
_percent_flashback_buf_partial_full Percent of flashback buffer filled to be considered partial full  
_pga_aggregate_xmem_limit n/a limit of aggregate PGA XMEM memory consumed by the instance  
_pga_auto_snapshot_percentage percent growth of PGA memory for additional snapshots  
_pga_auto_snapshot_threshold bytes of PGA memory in one process to trigger detail snapshot  
_pga_detail_combine_auto combine auto and manual PGA memory detail snapshots  
_pga_in_sga_param1 n/a pga in sga param1  
_pga_in_sga_param2 n/a pga in sga param2  
_pga_in_sga_param3 n/a pga in sga param4  
_pga_in_sga_param4 n/a pga in sga param4  
_pga_in_sga_param5 n/a pga in sga param4  
_pga_large_extent_size PGA large extent size  
_pga_limit_check_wait_time n/a microseconds to wait for over limit confirmation  
_pga_limit_dump_summary n/a dump PGA summary when signalling ORA-4036  
_pga_limit_interrupt_smaller n/a whether to interrupt smaller eligible processes  
_pga_limit_min_req_size n/a bytes of PGA usage below which process will not get ORA-4036  
_pga_limit_per_process_minimum n/a pga_aggregate_limit per-process minimum  
_pga_limit_physmem_perc n/a default percent of physical memory for pga_aggregate_limit and SGA  
_pga_limit_simulated_physmem_size n/a bytes of physical memory to determine pga_aggregate_limit with  
_pga_limit_target_perc n/a default percent of pga_aggregate_target for pga_aggregate_limit  
_pga_limit_time_to_interrupt n/a seconds to wait until direct interrupt  
_pga_limit_time_until_idle n/a seconds to wait before treating process as idle  
_pga_limit_time_until_killed n/a seconds to wait before killing session over limit  
_pga_limit_tracing n/a trace pga_aggregate_limit activity  
_pga_limit_use_immediate_kill n/a use immediate kill for sessions over limit  
_pga_limit_watch_perc n/a percentage of limit to have processes watch  
_pga_limit_watch_size n/a bytes of PGA usage at which process will begin watching limit  
_pga_max_size Maximum size of the PGA memory for one process  
_pgactx_cap_stacks capture stacks for setting pgactx  
_pin_time_statistics n/a if TRUE collect statistics for how long a current pin is held  
_pivot_implementation_method pivot implementation method  
_pkt_enable enable progressive kill test  
_pkt_pmon_interval PMON process clean-up interval (cs)  
_pkt_start start progressive kill test instrumention  
_plan_outline_data explain plan outline data enabled  
_plan_verify_improvement_margin Performance improvement criterion for evolving plan baselines  
_plan_verify_local_time_limit n/a Local time limit to use for an individual plan verification  
_plcmnt_template_svc_name n/a service placement template name  
_plsql_anon_block_code_type PL/SQL anonymous block code-type  
_plsql_cache_enable PL/SQL Function Cache Enabled  
_plsql_dump_buffer_events conditions upon which the PL/SQL circular buffer is dumped  
_plsql_icd_arg_dump n/a Dump arguments to ICD  
_plsql_max_stack_size PL/SQL maximum stack size  
_plsql_minimum_cache_hit_percent plsql minimum cache hit percentage required to keep caching active  
_plsql_native_frame_threshold Allocate PL/SQL native frames on the heap if size exceeds this value  
_plsql_nvl_optimize PL/SQL NVL optimize  
_plsql_share_instantiation n/a PL/SQL share kgscc for same SQL executed at multiple locations  
_pluggable_database_debug n/a Debug flag for pluggable database related operations  
_pmon_cleanup_max_dfs n/a max dfs elements during cleanup  
_pmon_dead_blkrs_alive_chk_rate_secs rate to check blockers are alive during cleanup (in seconds)  
_pmon_dead_blkrs_max_blkrs max blockers to check during cleanup  
_pmon_dead_blkrs_max_cleanup_attempts max attempts per blocker while checking dead blockers  
_pmon_dead_blkrs_scan_rate_secs rate to scan for dead blockers during cleanup (in seconds)  
_pmon_enable_dead_blkrs look for dead blockers during PMON cleanup  
_pmon_exitnfy_enabled n/a PMON Exit notification enabled  
_pmon_idle_scan_interval n/a PMON idle scan interval (in seconds)  
_pmon_incr_slaves n/a PMON cleanup: slave increment  
_pmon_load_constants server load balancing constants (S,P,D,I,L,C,M)  
_pmon_max_consec_posts PMON max consecutive posts in main loop  
_pmon_max_slaves n/a Maximum number of PMON slaves  
_pmon_min_slaves n/a Minimum number of PMON slaves  
_pmon_new_slave_secs n/a PMON cleanup: new slave (in seconds)  
_pmon_slave_stop_secs n/a PMON cleanup: slave stop limit (in seconds)  
_pmon_slaves_arr_size n/a Array size for PMON slaves  
_pmon_trees_per_slave n/a PMON cleanup: trees per slave  
_posix_spawn_enabled posix_spawn enabled  
_post_wait_queues_dynamic_queues n/a Post Wait Queues - Num Dynamic Queues  
_post_wait_queues_num_per_class Post Wait Queues - Num Per Class  
_pq_numa_working_set_affinity n/a if TRUE, enable pq slave NUMA affinity  
_pqq_debug_txn_act pq queuing transaction active  
_pqq_enabled Enable Resource Manager based Parallel Statement Queuing  
_pre_rewrite_push_pred push predicates into views before rewrite  
_precompute_gid_values precompute gid values and copy them before returning a row  
_pred_move_around enables predicate move-around  
_pred_push_cdb_view_enabled n/a predicate pushdown enabled for CDB views  
_predicate_elimination_enabled allow predicate elimination if set to TRUE  
_predicate_validity_execution n/a enable execution-time check for predicate validation  
_prefer_local_temp n/a Use Local Temp as preferred default tablespace  
_prefered_standby n/a standby db_unique_name prefered for krb operations  
_preplugin_backup n/a enable/disable pre-plugin backup feature  
_prescomm presume commit of IMU transactions  
_prespawn_batch_count n/a prespawn batch count  
_prespawn_bg_init_count n/a prespawn background init count  
_prespawn_enabled n/a Is prespawn enabled  
_prespawn_fg_init_count n/a prespawn foreground init count  
_prespawn_min_count n/a prespawn minimum count  
_print_inmem_heatmap n/a print inmem ilm heatmap  
_print_inmem_srmap n/a print inmem spacereuse map  
_print_refresh_schedule enable dbms_output of materialized view refresh schedule  
_print_stat_segment n/a print ilm statistics segment  
_priv_for_set_current_schema n/a ALTER SESSION privilege required for SET CURRENT_SCHEMA  
_private_memory_address Start address of large extent memory segment  
_proc_grp_enabled n/a proc-group enabled  
_proc_grp_numa_map n/a proc-group map string  
_process_allocation_slots n/a process allocation slots  
_process_heartbeat_range n/a Process heartbeat range  
_project_view_columns enable projecting out unreferenced columns of a view  
_projection_pushdown projection pushdown  
_projection_pushdown_debug level for projection pushdown debugging  
_prop_old_enabled Shift to pre 11g propagation behaviour  
_propogate_restore_point n/a Allow shipping of restore point from primary to standby  
_protect_frame_heaps Protect cursor frame heaps  
_proxy_connect_after_set_container n/a Enable proxy connection after set container  
_pseudo_bootstrap n/a Indicate that pseudo boostrap be done  
_ptf_enable_objects n/a enable object types in PTF  
_ptf_max_rows n/a number of rows per row-buffer  
_ptn_cache_threshold flags and threshold to control partition metadata caching  
_ptt_max_num n/a Maximum number of PTTs per session  
_purge_idcs_access_token n/a Purge IDCS Access Token  
_push_join_predicate enable pushing join predicate inside a view  
_push_join_union_view enable pushing join predicate inside a union all view  
_push_join_union_view2 enable pushing join predicate inside a union view  
_pwise_distinct_enabled n/a enable partition wise distinct  
_px_adaptive_dist_bypass_enabled n/a enable the bypass table queue for adaptive distribution methods  
_px_adaptive_dist_bypass_optimization n/a sets optimizations for bypass table queue for ADM  
_px_adaptive_dist_method n/a determines the behavior of adaptive distribution methods  
_px_adaptive_dist_method_threshold n/a Buffering / decision threshold for adaptive distribution methods  
_px_adaptive_offload_pecentage n/a percentage for PQ adaptive offloading of granules  
_px_adaptive_offload_percentage n/a percentage for PQ adaptive offloading of granules  
_px_adaptive_offload_threshold threshold (GB/s) for PQ adaptive offloading of granules  
_px_async_getgranule n/a asynchronous get granule in the slave  
_px_autodop_pq_overhead n/a adjust auto dop calculation using pq overhead  
_px_back_to_parallel n/a allow going back to parallel after a serial operation  
_px_bind_peek_sharing enables sharing of px cursors that were built using bind peeking  
_px_broadcast_fudge_factor set the tq broadcasting fudge factor percentage  
_px_buffer_ttl ttl for px mesg buffers in seconds  
_px_cdb_view_enabled n/a parallel cdb view evaluation enabled  
_px_cdb_view_join_enabled n/a disable parallelism cap on CDB view  
_px_chunk_size n/a default size of a chunk for row id granules (in KB)  
_px_chunklist_count_ratio ratio of the number of chunk lists to the default DOP per instance  
_px_compilation_debug debug level for parallel compilation  
_px_compilation_trace tracing level for parallel compilation  
_px_concurrent n/a enables pq with concurrent execution of serial inputs  
_px_cpu_autodop_enabled n/a enables or disables auto dop cpu computation  
_px_cpu_operator_bandwidth n/a CPU operator bandwidth in MB/sec for DOP computation  
_px_cpu_process_bandwidth n/a CPU process bandwidth in MB/sec for DOP computation  
_px_dist_agg_partial_rollup_pushdown n/a perform distinct agg partial rollup pushdown for px execution  
_px_dp_array_size n/a Max number of pq processes supported  
_px_dump_12805_source enables or disables tracing of 12805 signal source  
_px_dynamic_granules n/a enable dynamic granule generation  
_px_dynamic_granules_adjust n/a adjust dynamic granule regeneration  
_px_dynamic_opt turn off/on restartable qerpx dynamic optimization  
_px_dynamic_sample_size num of samples for restartable qerpx dynamic optimization  
_px_execution_services_enabled enable service-based constraint of px slave allocation  
_px_external_table_default_stats n/a the external table default stats collection enable/disable  
_px_filter_parallelized n/a enables or disables correlated filter parallelization  
_px_filter_skew_handling n/a enable correlated filter parallelization to handle skew  
_px_freelist_latch_divisor Divide the computed number of freelists by this power of 2  
_px_gim_factor weighted autodop global index maintenance factor  
_px_granule_alignment n/a default size of a rowid range granule (in KB)  
_px_granule_batch_size default size of a batch of granules maximum size of a batch of granules
_px_granule_randomize enables or disables randomization of parallel scans rowid granules  
_px_granule_size default size of a rowid range granule (in KB)  
_px_groupby_pushdown n/a perform group-by pushdown for parallel query  
_px_hold_time hold px at execution time (unit: second)  
_px_hybrid_TSM_HWMB_load n/a Enable Hybrid Temp Segment Merge/High Water Mark Brokered load method  
_px_hybrid_partition_execution_enabled n/a enable parallel hybrid partition execution  
_px_hybrid_partition_skew_threshold n/a partitions bigger than threshold times average size are skewed  
_px_increase_join_frag_size n/a increase join message fragment size  
_px_index_sampling n/a parallel query sampling for index create (100000 = 100%)  
_px_index_sampling_objsize parallel query sampling for index create based on object size  
_px_io_process_bandwidth IO process bandwidth in MB/sec for computing DOP  
_px_io_system_bandwidth total IO system bandwidth in MB/sec for computing DOP  
_px_join_skew_handling n/a enables skew handling for parallel joins  
_px_join_skew_minfreq n/a sets minimum frequency(%) for skewed value for parallel joins  
_px_join_skew_null_handling n/a enables null skew handling improvement for parallel outer joins  
_px_join_skew_ratio n/a sets skew ratio for parallel joins  
_px_join_skew_sampling_percent n/a Sets sampling percentage for skew handling sampling queries  
_px_join_skew_sampling_time_limit n/a Sets execution time limit for skew handling sampling queries  
_px_join_skew_use_histogram n/a Enables retrieval of skewed values from histogram when possible  
_px_join_skewed_values_count n/a force join skew handling with specified skewed values count  
_px_kxib_tracing turn on kxib tracing  
_px_load_balancing_policy n/a parallel load balancing policy  
_px_load_factor weighted autodop load factor  
_px_load_monitor_threshold n/a threshold for pushing information to load slave workload monitor  
_px_load_publish_interval interval at which LMON will check whether to publish PX load  
_px_loc_msg_cost CPU cost to send a PX message via shared memory  
_px_max_granules_per_slave maximum number of rowid range granules to generate per slave  
_px_max_map_val Maximum value of rehash mapping for PX  
_px_max_message_pool_pct percentage of shared pool for px msg buffers range [5,90]  
_px_message_compression n/a enable compression of control messages for parallel query  
_px_min_granules_per_slave minimum number of rowid range granules to generate per slave  
_px_min_ndv_per_slave_perc_func n/a mininum NDV of TQ keys needed per slave for parallel percentile  
_px_minus_intersect enables pq for minus/interect operators  
_px_net_msg_cost CPU cost to send a PX message over the internconnect  
_px_nlj_bcast_rr_threshold n/a threshold to use broadcast left random right distribution for NLJ  
_px_no_granule_sort prevent parallel partition granules to be sorted on size  
_px_no_stealing prevent parallel granule stealing in shared nothing environment  
_px_nss_planb enables or disables NSS Plan B reparse with outline  
_px_numa_stealing_enabled enable/disable PQ granule stealing across NUMA nodes  
_px_numa_support_enabled enable/disable PQ NUMA support  
_px_object_sampling n/a parallel query sampling for base objects (100000 = 100%)  
_px_object_sampling_enabled n/a use base object sampling when possible for range distribution  
_px_object_sampling_multiplier n/a number of samples to send to QC per slave is DOP * prmixsm  
_px_onepass_slave_acquisition n/a enable/disable one pass slave acquisition for parallel execution  
_px_overhead_exec_ctrlmesg n/a pq overhead on sending one control message during execution (in microseconds)  
_px_overhead_init_endpoints n/a pq overhead on setting up one end point during initialization (in microseconds)  
_px_overhead_init_slavealloc n/a pq overhead on allocating per slave during initialization (in microseconds)  
_px_overhead_teardown n/a pq overhead on setting up one end point during initialization (in microseconds)  
_px_parallel_spawn_min_count n/a PQ parallel spawn min threshold count  
_px_parallelize_expression n/a enables or disables expression evaluation parallelization  
_px_partial_rollup_pushdown n/a perform partial rollup pushdown for parallel execution  
_px_partition_load_dist_threshold n/a # of load slave to # of partition ratio to switch distribution  
_px_partition_scan_enabled enables or disables parallel partition-based scan enables or disables parallel partition-based scan
_px_partition_scan_threshold least number of partitions per slave to start partition-based scan least number of partitions per slave to start partition-based scan
_px_partition_skew_threshold n/a percentage of table size considered as threshold for skew determination  
_px_proactive_slave_alloc_threshold n/a parallel proactive slave allocation threshold/unit  
_px_proc_constrain reduce parallel_max_servers if greater than (processes - fudge)  
_px_pwg_enabled parallel partition wise group by enabled  
_px_pwise_wif_enabled n/a enable parallel partition wise window function  
_px_pwmr_enabled n/a parallel partition wise match recognize enabled  
_px_replication_enabled n/a enables or disables replication of small table scans  
_px_reuse_server_groups n/a enable/disable reusing of server groups that are already acquired  
_px_round_robin_rowcnt round robin row count to enq to next slave  
_px_rownum_pd turn off/on parallel rownum pushdown optimization  
_px_scalable_gby_invdist n/a scalable PX plan for GBY w/ inverse distribution functions  
_px_scalable_invdist n/a enable/disable px scalable plan for inverse distribution functions  
_px_scalable_invdist_mcol n/a enable/disable px plan for percentile functions on multiple columns  
_px_send_timeout IPC message send timeout value in seconds  
_px_shared_hash_join n/a enable/disable shared hash join  
_px_single_server_enabled n/a allow single-slave dfo in parallel query  
_px_slave_parse_first_with_outline_hints n/a Enable/Disable trying outlined plan first  
_px_slaves_share_cursors n/a slaves share cursors with QC  
_px_split_batches_per_slave n/a number of split granules per slave for exadoop  
_px_split_multi_msg n/a use multiple messages to send batch of split granules  
_px_split_use_single_list n/a use single list for split granules  
_px_tq_memcpy_threshold n/a threshold for PQ TQ to use memcpy for packing columns  
_px_tq_rowhvs n/a turn on intra-row hash valueing sharing in TQ  
_px_trace px trace parameter  
_px_ual_serial_input enables new pq for UNION operators  
_px_wif_dfo_declumping n/a NDV-aware DFO clumping of multiple window sorts  
_px_wif_extend_distribution_keys n/a extend TQ data redistribution keys for window functions  
_px_wif_min_ndv_per_slave n/a mininum NDV of TQ keys needed per slave for scalable WiF PX  
_px_xtgranule_size default size of a external table granule (in KB)  
_qa_control Oracle internal parameter to control QA  
_qa_lrg_type Oracle internal parameter to specify QA lrg type  
_qesma_bo_lru_sz n/a size of base object LRU list for QESMA session cache  
_qesma_mvob_lru_sz n/a size of MVOB LRU list for QESMA session cache  
_qesmasc_trc n/a tracing for QESMA session cache  
_qksfgi_disable_action_mask n/a disable fine-grained cursor invalidation actions  
_qksfgi_disable_oct_mask n/a disable fine-grained cursor invalidation for certain oct  
_qksfgi_dix_val n/a controls action of fine-grained cursor invalidation for DROP INDEX  
_qksfgi_dynamic_partitions n/a enable partition bind SQLIDs for  
_qksfgi_feature_level n/a controls the feature level for fine-grained cursor invalidation  
_qkslvc_47510_sys n/a enable project 47510 for internal users  
_qkslvc_47510_test n/a enable project 47510 for testing  
_qkslvc_extended_bind_sz n/a controls error checking for the max_string_size parameter  
_quarantine_enabled n/a quarantine: enable  
_quarantine_max_mem n/a quarantine: max amount of memory  
_quarantine_max_objs n/a quarantine: max number of objects  
_quarantine_per_hour n/a quarantine: limit per hour  
_query_cost_rewrite perform the cost based rewrite with materialized views  
_query_execution_cache_max_size max size of query execution cache  
_query_execution_time_limit n/a Query execution time limit in seconds  
_query_mmvrewrite_maxcmaps query mmv rewrite maximum number of cmaps per dmap in query disjunct  
_query_mmvrewrite_maxdmaps query mmv rewrite maximum number of dmaps per query disjunct  
_query_mmvrewrite_maxinlists query mmv rewrite maximum number of in-lists per disjunct  
_query_mmvrewrite_maxintervals query mmv rewrite maximum number of intervals per disjunct  
_query_mmvrewrite_maxpreds query mmv rewrite maximum number of predicates per disjunct  
_query_mmvrewrite_maxqryinlistvals query mmv rewrite maximum number of query in-list values  
_query_mmvrewrite_maxregperm query mmv rewrite maximum number of region permutations  
_query_on_physical query on physical  
_query_rewrite_1 perform query rewrite before&after or only before view merging  
_query_rewrite_2 perform query rewrite before&after or only after view merging  
_query_rewrite_drj mv rewrite and drop redundant joins  
_query_rewrite_expression rewrite with cannonical form for expressions  
_query_rewrite_fpc mv rewrite fresh partition containment  
_query_rewrite_fudge cost based query rewrite with MVs fudge factor  
_query_rewrite_jgmigrate mv rewrite with jg migration  
_query_rewrite_maxdisjunct query rewrite max disjuncts  
_query_rewrite_or_error allow query rewrite, if referenced tables are not dataless  
_query_rewrite_setopgrw_enable perform general rewrite using set operator summaries  
_query_rewrite_use_on_query_computation n/a query rewrite use on query computation  
_query_rewrite_vop_cleanup prune frocol chain before rewrite after view-merging  
_queue_buffer_max_dump_len max number of bytes to dump to trace file for queue buffer dump  
_rac_dbtype_reset n/a RAC database type reset from CRS  
_rac_propagate_last_rba n/a Propagate last written log redo address in RAC for log mining  
_radm_enabled Data Redaction  
_rbr_ckpt_tracing Enable reuse block range checkpoint tracing  
_rc_sys_obj_enabled n/a result cache enabled for Sys Objects  
_rcfg_disable_verify if TRUE disables verify at reconfiguration  
_rcfg_parallel_fixwrite if TRUE enables parallel fixwrite at reconfiguration  
_rcfg_parallel_replay if TRUE enables parallel replay and cleanup at reconfiguration  
_rcfg_parallel_verify if TRUE enables parallel verify at reconfiguration  
_rdbms_compatibility default RDBMS compatibility level  
_rdbms_internal_fplib_enabled enable CELL FPLIB filtering within rdbms  
_rdbms_internal_fplib_raise_errors enable reraising of any exceptions in CELL FPLIB  
_re_fast_sql_operator n/a enables fast boxable sql operator  
_re_independent_expression_cache_size n/a defines max number of compiled cached expressions for iee  
_re_num_complex_operator n/a defines max number of compiled complex operator per ruleset-iee  
_re_num_rowcache_load n/a defines max number of complex operators loaded with row cache  
_re_result_cache_keysiz n/a defines max number key for result cache hash table  
_re_result_cache_size n/a defines max number of cached elements for result cache  
_read_mostly_enable_logon n/a Read mostly/ Read only instances enable non-privileged logons  
_read_mostly_instance n/a indicates this is a read_mostly instance  
_read_mostly_instance_qa_control n/a internal parameter to control read mostly instance QA  
_read_mostly_lock_mitigation n/a Read Mostly Lock mitigation support  
_read_mostly_slave_timeout n/a Time to wait on read mostly node when hub not available  
_read_only_slave_timeout n/a Time to wait on read only node when hub not available  
_read_only_violation_dump_to_trace read-only violation dump to trace files  
_read_only_violation_max_count read-only violation array max count  
_read_only_violation_max_count_per_module read-only violation array per module max count  
_read_optimized_table_lookup n/a enables read-optimized table lookup  
_readable_standby_sync_interval n/a readable standby recovery global sync interval  
_readable_standby_sync_timeout readable standby query scn sync timeout  
_reader_farm_isolation_enable n/a Reader Farm instances isolation enable  
_reader_farm_isolation_time_threshold n/a reader farm isolation time threshold  
_real_time_apply_sim Simulation value with real time apply  
_realfree_heap_max_size minimum max total heap size, in Kbytes  
_realfree_heap_mode mode flags for real-free heap  
_realfree_heap_pagesize n/a hint for real-free page size in bytes  
_realfree_heap_pagesize_hint n/a hint for real-free page size in bytes  
_realfree_pq_heap_pagesize n/a hint for pq real-free page size in bytes  
_reclaim_lob_index_scan_limit n/a limit lob index scanning during lob space-reclaim  
_reco_sessions_max_percentage n/a allowed RECO sessions as a percentage of total sessions allowed  
_reconfiguration_opt_level n/a reconfiguration optimization level  
_record_module_name n/a Record module name in BEGIN action  
_recoverable_recovery_batch_percent Recoverable recovery batch size (percentage of buffer cache)  
_recoverable_recovery_max_influx_buffers n/a Recoverable recovery number of influx buffers limit  
_recovery_asserts if TRUE, enable expensive integrity checks  
_recovery_percentage recovery buffer cache percentage  
_recovery_read_limit number of recovery reads which can be outstanding  
_recovery_skip_cfseq_check allow media recovery even if controlfile seq check fails  
_recovery_verify_writes enable thread recovery write verify  
_recursive_imu_transactions recursive transactions may be IMU  
_recursive_with_branch_iterations n/a Expected number of iterations of the recurive branch of RW/CBY  
_recursive_with_control n/a control different uses/algorithms related to recursive with  
_recursive_with_max_recursion_level check for maximum level of recursion instead of checking for cycles  
_recursive_with_parallel n/a Enable/disable parallelization of Recursive With  
_recursive_with_using_temp_table n/a Enable the use of CDT for serial execution of Recursive With  
_redef_on_statement n/a Use on-statement refresh in online redefinition  
_redo_compatibility_check general and redo/undo compatibility sanity check  
_redo_log_check_backup n/a time interval in minutes between wakeups to check backup of redo logs  
_redo_log_debug_config n/a Various configuration flags for debugging redo logs  
_redo_log_key_reuse_count n/a Determines the number of redo logs sharing the same redo log key  
_redo_log_record_life n/a Life time in hours for redo log table records  
_redo_read_from_memory Enable reading redo from in-memory log buffer  
_redo_transport_async_mode n/a redo transport ASYNC process mode  
_redo_transport_catch_up_bandwidth_percentage n/a redo transport catch up bandwitdth percent  
_redo_transport_compress_all Is ASYNC LNS compression allowed?  
_redo_transport_evict_threshold n/a Threshold beyond which a slower ASYNC connection will be evicted  
_redo_transport_max_kbytes_sec n/a redo transport maximum KB/s  
_redo_transport_min_kbytes_sec n/a redo transport minimum KB/s  
_redo_transport_redo_log_management n/a redo log management  
_redo_transport_resource_management n/a Redo transport resource management  
_redo_transport_sanity_check redo transport sanity check bit mask  
_redo_transport_stall_time I/O stall time before terminating redo transport process use parameter DATA_GUARD_MAX_IO_TIME
_redo_transport_stall_time_long long I/O stall time before terminating redo transport process use parameter DATA_GUARD_MAX_LONGIO_TIME
_redo_transport_stream_test test stream connection?  
_redo_transport_stream_writes Stream network writes?  
_redo_transport_vio_size_req VIO size requirement  
_redo_write_coalesce_all_threshold n/a Redo write coalescing threshold (all strands) in bytes  
_redo_write_coalesce_slave_threshold n/a Redo write coalescing threshold (slave strands) in bytes  
_redo_write_sync_single_io n/a enable sync I/O for single redo write  
_reduce_sby_log_scan enable standby log scan optimization  
_ref_cons_sql_enforcement n/a disable extended/data ref constraint SQL enforcement  
_reg_cache_status n/a Enables or disabled caching  
_region_name n/a gsm region name  
_release_insert_threshold maximum number of unusable blocks to unlink from freelist  
_reliable_block_sends if TRUE, no side channel on reliable interconnect  
_relocate_pdb n/a Relocate PDB to another RAC instance after it is closed in the current instance  
_relocation_commit_batch_size ASM relocation commit batch size  
_remessage_dbwrs n/a DBWR wait and remessage time - in cs  
_remote_asm n/a remote ASM configuration  
_remote_awr_enabled n/a Enable/disable Remote AWR Mode  
_remove_aggr_subquery enables removal of subsumed aggregated subquery  
_remove_exf_component n/a enable/disable removing of components EXF and RUL during upgrade  
_rep_base_path base path for EM reports in database  
_replace_virtual_columns replace expressions with virtual columns  
_report_capture_cycle_time n/a Time (in sec) between two cycles of report capture daemon  
_report_capture_dbtime_percent_cutoff n/a 100X Percent of system db time daemon is allowed over 10 cycles  
_report_capture_recharge_window n/a No of report capture cycles after which db time is recharged  
_report_capture_timeband_length n/a Length of time band (in hours) in the reports time bands table  
_report_request_ageout_minutes n/a Time (in min) after which a report request is deleted from queue  
_request_boundaries n/a request boundaries mode  
_reset_maxcap_history reset maxcap history time reset maxcap history periods
_resource_includes_unlimited_tablespace n/a Whether RESOURCE role includes UNLIMITED TABLESPACE privilege  
_resource_manager_always_off disable the resource manager always  
_resource_manager_always_on n/a enable the resource manager always  
_resource_manager_plan resource mgr top plan for internal use  
_restore_block0 n/a restore block0  
_restore_create_directory n/a automatically create directory during restore  
_restore_maxopenfiles restore assumption for maxopenfiles  
_restore_spfile restore spfile to this location  
_restrict_become_user n/a become user functionality restricted  
_restrict_db_link_user_entries n/a Maximum number of entries per db link user  
_restrict_local_user_dml n/a Restrict Local user's ability to update sensitive tables  
_restrict_pdb_gv n/a restrict GV$ in a PDB  
_result_cache_auto_dml_monitoring_duration result cache auto dml monitoring duration  
_result_cache_auto_dml_monitoring_slots result cache auto dml monitoring slot  
_result_cache_auto_dml_threshold result cache auto dml threshold  
_result_cache_auto_dml_trend_threshold result cache auto dml trend threshold  
_result_cache_auto_execution_threshold result cache auto execution threshold  
_result_cache_auto_size_threshold result cache auto max size allowed  
_result_cache_auto_time_distance result cache auto time distance  
_result_cache_auto_time_threshold result cache auto time threshold result cache auto time threshold
_result_cache_black_list n/a cache_id's not allowed to use the result cache  
_result_cache_block_size result cache block size  
_result_cache_copy_block_count blocks to copy instead of pinning the result  
_result_cache_deterministic_plsql result cache deterministic PLSQL functions  
_result_cache_global Are results available globally across RAC?  
_result_cache_latch_free_reads n/a latch free reads  
_result_cache_per_pdb n/a Is service result cache per pdb  
_result_cache_timeout maximum time (sec) a session waits for a result  
_result_cache_white_list n/a users allowed to use result cache  
_resumable_critical_alert n/a raise critical alert for resumable failure  
_reuse_dropped_pdbid_time n/a Time in seconds to wait before reusing a dropped PDB ID  
_reuse_index_loop number of blocks being examine for index block reuse  
_rf_blocks_per_entity n/a number of blocks per entity  
_right_outer_hash_enable Right Outer/Semi/Anti Hash Enabled  
_rm_atp_cpu_cnt_scale n/a Scaling factor for cpu count in ATP  
_rm_cluster_interconnects interconnects for RAC use (RM)  
_rm_exadata_partition_fc n/a Partition flash cache for Exadata  
_rm_exadata_pdb_cpu_cnt n/a Use PDB CPU cnt for Exadata smart scan  
_rm_exadata_pdb_cpu_cnt_mult n/a Multiplication factor for PDB cpu count  
_rm_force_caging n/a    
_rm_numa_sched_enable Is Resource Manager (RM) related NUMA scheduled policy enabled  
_rm_numa_simulation_cpus number of cpus for each pg for numa simulation in resource manager  
_rm_numa_simulation_pgs number of PGs for numa simulation in resource manager  
_rm_superlong_threshold n/a DBRM superlong threshold setting  
_rman_io_priority priority at which rman backup i/o's are done  
_rman_restore_through_link n/a RMAN restore through link  
_rman_roundrobin_placement Numa round robin placement for RMAN procs  
_rmt_for_table_redef_enabled n/a Use Rowid Mapping Table for table redef  
_rmv_dynamic_priority n/a enable rmv priority modification  
_roi_first_open_wait n/a duration of ROI first open wait for RWI open  
_rollback_segment_count number of undo segments  
_rollback_segment_initial starting undo segment number  
_rollback_stopat stop at -position to step rollback  
_rolling_patchlevel n/a Set Rolling Patch Level for RDBMS instance  
_rond_test_mode n/a rac one node test mode  
_root_clone_state_from_root n/a Application Root Clone's state comes from Application Root  
_row_cache_cursors number of cached cursors for row cache management  
_row_cache_dump_cooling_period n/a Period to wait (in minutes) before resetting dump count  
_row_cache_dump_interval n/a Interval (in seconds) between each dump  
_row_cr enable row cr for all sql  
_row_locking row-locking  
_row_shipping_explain enable row shipping explain plan support  
_row_shipping_threshold row shipping column selection threshold  
_rowlen_for_chaining_threshold maximum rowlen above which rows may be chained across blocks  
_rowsets_cdb_view_enabled n/a rowsets enabled for CDB views  
_rowsets_enabled n/a enable/disable rowsets  
_rowsets_max_enc_rows n/a maximum number of encoded rows in a rowset  
_rowsets_max_rows n/a maximum number of rows in a rowset  
_rowsets_target_maxsize n/a target size in bytes for space reserved in the frame for a rowset  
_rowsets_use_encoding n/a allow/disallow use of encoding with rowsets  
_rowsource_execution_statistics if TRUE, Oracle will collect rowsource statistics  
_rowsource_profiling_statistics if TRUE, Oracle will capture active row sources in v$active_session_history  
_rowsource_statistics_sampfreq frequency of rowsource statistic sampling (must be a power of 2)  
_rowsrc_trace_level Row source tree tracing level  
_rq_shm_max_size n/a maximum size of an RQuery shared memory segement (in KB)  
_rta_sync_wait_timeout RTA sync wait timeout  
_rtabnd_update_offload n/a RFS process offload RTA boundary update  
_rtaddm_trigger_args n/a comma-separated list of numeric arguments for RT addm trigger  
_rtaddm_trigger_enabled n/a To enable or disable Real-Time ADDM automatic trigger  
_rtc_infeasible_threshold Redo Transport Compression infeasible threshold  
_rule_max_dnfp_cnt n/a Rules max dnf piece count  
_sage_block_checking n/a enable block checking of blocks returned by smartscan  
_sample_rows_per_block number of rows per block used for sampling IO optimization  
_save_afns_on_subset_pdb_creation n/a Use one reserved AFN for skipped tablespaces on pdb subset creation with lower compat  
_scalar_type_lob_storage_threshold n/a threshold for VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2, and RAW storage as BLOB  
_scatter_gcs_resources if TRUE, gcs resources are scattered uniformly across sub pools  
_scatter_gcs_shadows if TRUE, gcs shadows are scattered uniformly across sub pools  
_sched_delay_max_samples scheduling delay maximum number of samples  
_sched_delay_measurement_sleep_us scheduling delay mesurement sleep us  
_sched_delay_os_tick_granularity_us os tick granularity used by scheduling delay calculations  
_sched_delay_sample_collection_thresh_ms scheduling delay sample collection duration threshold ms  
_sched_delay_sample_interval_ms scheduling delay sampling interval in ms  
_scn_wait_interface_max_backoff_time_secs max exponential backoff time for scn wait interface in kta  
_scn_wait_interface_max_timeout_secs max timeout for scn wait interface in kta  
_sdiag_crash sql diag crash  
_sec_enable_test_rpcs Whether to enable the test RPCs  
_second_spare_parameter second spare parameter - integer  
_securefile_log_num_latches n/a Maximum number of open descriptors for securefile log  
_securefile_log_shared_pool_size n/a Size of securefile log buffer pool from SGA  
_securefile_timers collect kdlu timers and accumulate per layers  
_securefiles_bgtimeout n/a securefiles segment background invocation timeout  
_securefiles_breakreten_retry n/a segment retry before dishonoring retention  
_securefiles_bulkclnout n/a securefiles segment bulk clnout optization  
_securefiles_bulkinsert securefiles segment insert only optization  
_securefiles_concurrency_estimate securefiles concurrency estimate  
_securefiles_fg_retry segment retry before foreground waits  
_securefiles_forceflush securefiles force flush before allocation  
_securefiles_increase_hbb n/a securefiles increase hbb  
_securefiles_memory_percentofSGA securefiles memory as percent of SGA  
_securefiles_spcutl n/a securefiles segment utl optimization  
_seed_root_undo_ratio n/a Ratio of PDB$SEED to ROOT undo size, expressed as a percentage  
_select_any_dictionary_security_enabled n/a Exclude user$ from SELECT ANY DICTIONARY system privilege  
_selectivity_for_srf_enabled enable/disable selectivity for storage reduction factor  
_selfjoin_mv_duplicates control rewrite self-join algorithm  
_selftune_checkpoint_write_pct Percentage of total physical i/os for self-tune ckpt  
_selftune_checkpointing_lag Self-tune checkpointing lag the tail of the redo log  
_sem_per_semid the exact number of semaphores per semaphore set to allocate  
_send_ast_to_foreground if TRUE, send ast message to foreground  
_send_close_with_block if TRUE, send close with block even with direct sends  
_send_requests_to_pi if TRUE, try to send CR requests to PI buffers  
_sensitive_common_as_local n/a treat common user as local user for sensitive data handling  
_sensitive_common_users n/a list of common users to be treated as local  
_sequence_scale_extend n/a Force sequence creation with scale extend  
_sequence_scale_noextend n/a Force sequence creation with scale noextend  
_serial_direct_read enable direct read in serial  
_serial_log_write_worker_io n/a Serialize log write worker I/O  
_serial_recovery force serial recovery or parallel recovery  
_serializable serializable  
_serialize_lgwr_sync_io Serialize LGWR SYNC local and remote io  
_service_cleanup_timeout timeout to peform service cleanup  
_session_allocation_latches one latch per group of sessions  
_session_aware_replay n/a Enable session aware replay  
_session_cached_instantiations Number of pl/sql instantiations to cache in a session.  
_session_context_size session app context size  
_session_fast_lrg_prediction n/a use short interval for session SO prediction  
_session_idle_bit_latches one latch per session or a latch per group of sessions  
_session_max_pred_increase n/a session SO max predicted increase  
_session_page_extent Session Page Extent Size  
_session_percent_rampup_end n/a session SO percent rampup end  
_session_percent_rampup_start n/a session SO percent rampup start  
_session_prediction_failover_buffer n/a session prediction failover buffer  
_session_prediction_interval n/a session SO prediction interval  
_session_save_prediction n/a save session prediction for next instance startup  
_session_use_linear_prediction n/a use session SO lin-reg prediction  
_session_use_periodic_prediction n/a use session SO periodic prediction  
_session_wait_history enable session wait history collection  
_set_container_service n/a set container service  
_set_mgd_recovery_state n/a set mgd recovery state to new value  
_seventeenth_spare_parameter seventeenth spare parameter - string seventeenth spare parameter - integer
_seventh_spare_parameter seventh spare parameter - integer  
_seventieth_spare_parameter n/a seventieth spare parameter - integer  
_seventy-eighth_spare_parameter n/a seventy-eighth spare parameter - integer  
_seventy-fifth_spare_parameter n/a seventy-fifth spare parameter - integer  
_seventy-first_spare_parameter n/a seventy-first spare parameter - integer  
_seventy-fourth_spare_parameter n/a seventy-fourth spare parameter - integer  
_seventy-ninth_spare_parameter n/a seventy-ninth spare parameter - integer  
_seventy-second_spare_parameter n/a seventy-second spare parameter - integer  
_seventy-seventh_spare_parameter n/a seventy-seventh spare parameter - integer  
_seventy-sixth_spare_parameter n/a seventy-sixth spare parameter - integer  
_seventy-third_spare_parameter n/a seventy-third spare parameter - integer  
_sf_default_enabled n/a enable 12g securefile default  
_sga_alloc_slaves_term_timeout_secs n/a Termination timeout in secs for SA** slaves  
_sga_clear_dump Allow dumping encrypted blocks in clear for debugging  
_sga_early_trace sga early trace event  
_sga_grow_batch_size n/a Dynamic SGA grow batch size  
_sga_heap_chunk_alignment n/a force SGA heap chunk alignment  
_sga_heap_chunk_alignment_disabled n/a force SGA heap chunks not to be aligned  
_sga_locking n/a sga granule locking state  
_sga_shrink_allow n/a Allow SGA shrink operation  
_shadow_lost_write_found n/a Specify shadow lost write error handling  
_shadow_lost_write_tracing n/a Enable new lost write tracing  
_shard_sql_use_chunk_ids n/a Shard SQL use chunk ids  
_shardgroup_name n/a gsm shardgroup name  
_shardspace_name n/a gsm shardspace name  
_share_drcp_proxy_sessions n/a Enable Disable Proxy Session Sharing DRCP  
_shared_io_pool_buf_size Shared IO pool buffer size  
_shared_io_pool_debug_trc trace kcbi debug info to tracefile  
_shared_io_pool_size Size of shared IO pool  
_shared_io_set_value shared io pool size set internal value - overwrite zero user size  
_shared_iop_max_size maximum shared io pool size  
_shared_pool_max_size shared pool maximum size when auto SGA enabled  
_shared_pool_max_sz n/a    
_shared_pool_minsize_on shared pool minimum size when auto SGA enabled  
_shared_pool_reserved_min_alloc minimum allocation size in bytes for reserved area of shared pool  
_shared_pool_reserved_pct percentage memory of the shared pool allocated for the reserved area  
_shared_server_load_balance shared server load balance  
_shared_server_num_queues number of shared server common queues  
_shared_server_sizing_coeff n/a Shared server sizing coefficient  
_shared_servers_performance n/a Tradeoff shared servers resource usage for performance  
_shd_atomic_move n/a Use atomic move  
_shd_reptype n/a replication type of the databse and pool  
_shmprotect allow mprotect use for shared memory  
_short_stack_timeout_ms short stack timeout in ms  
_show_login_pdb_sessions n/a return logon pdb container id from v$session  
_show_mgd_recovery_state Show internal managed recovery state  
_shrd_que_tm_processes n/a number of sharded queue Time Managers to start  
_shrd_que_tm_statistics_duration n/a Shaded queue statistics collection window duration  
_shrunk_aggs_disable_threshold percentage of exceptions at which to switch to full length aggs  
_shrunk_aggs_enabled enable use of variable sized buffers for non-distinct aggregates  
_shutdown_completion_timeout_mins minutes for shutdown operation to wait for sessions to complete  
_shutdown_sync_enable n/a if TRUE, shutdown sync is issued before shutdown normal  
_side_channel_batch_size number of messages to batch in a side channel message (DFS)  
_side_channel_batch_timeout timeout before shipping out the batched side channelmessages in seconds  
_side_channel_batch_timeout_ms timeout before shipping out the batched side channelmessages in milliseconds  
_simple_view_merging control simple view merging performed by the optimizer  
_simulate_dax_storage n/a Simulate log on DAX storage  
_simulate_disk_sectorsize Enables skgfr to report simulated disk sector size Enables skgfr to report simulated physical disk sector size
_simulate_io_wait Simulate I/O wait to test segment advisor  
_simulate_logical_sectorsize n/a Enables skgfr to report simulated logical disk sector size  
_simulate_mem_transfer simulate auto memory sga/pga transfers  
_simulated_log_write_usecs n/a Simulated latency of log writes (usecs)  
_simulator_bucket_mindelta LRU bucket minimum delta  
_simulator_internal_bound simulator internal bound percent  
_simulator_lru_rebalance_sizthr LRU list rebalance threshold (size)  
_simulator_lru_rebalance_thresh LRU list rebalance threshold (count)  
_simulator_lru_scan_count LRU scan count  
_simulator_pin_inval_maxcnt maximum count of invalid chunks on pin list  
_simulator_reserved_heap_count simulator reserved heap count  
_simulator_reserved_obj_count simulator reserved object count  
_simulator_sampling_factor sampling factor for the simulator  
_simulator_upper_bound_multiple upper bound multiple of pool size  
_single_process run without detached processes  
_siop_flashback_scandepth Shared IO pool flashback io completion scan depth  
_siop_init_mem_gradually n/a will cause shared io pool in small chunks  
_siop_perc_of_bc_x100 percentange * 100 of cache to transfer to shared io pool  
_sixteenth_spare_parameter sixteenth spare parameter - string sixteenth spare parameter - integer
_sixth_spare_parameter sixth spare parameter - integer  
_sixtieth_spare_parameter n/a sixtieth spare parameter - integer  
_sixty-eighth_spare_parameter n/a sixty-eighth spare parameter - integer  
_sixty-fifth_spare_parameter n/a sixty-fifth spare parameter - integer  
_sixty-first_spare_parameter n/a sixty-first spare parameter - integer  
_sixty-fourth_spare_parameter n/a sixty-fourth spare parameter - integer  
_sixty-ninth_spare_parameter n/a sixty-ninth spare parameter - integer  
_sixty-second_spare_parameter n/a sixty-second spare parameter - integer  
_sixty-seventh_spare_parameter n/a sixty-seventh spare parameter - integer  
_sixty-sixth_spare_parameter n/a sixty-sixth spare parameter - integer  
_sixty-third_spare_parameter n/a sixty-third spare parameter - integer  
_size_of_log_table n/a modifying this hidden parameter, will modify the sizeof the v$gcr_log table  
_size_of_status_table n/a modifying this hidden parameter, will modify the sizeof the v$gcr_status table  
_skgxp_ant_options SKGXP ANT options (oss)  
_skgxp_ctx_flags1 IPC debug options flags (oss)  
_skgxp_ctx_flags1mask IPC debug options flags mask (oss)  
_skgxp_dynamic_protocol IPC protocol override (!0/-1=*,2=UDP,3=RDS,0x1000=ipc_X)  
_skgxp_gen_ant_off_rpc_timeout_in_sec VRPC request timeout when ANT disabled  
_skgxp_gen_ant_ping_misscount ANT protocol ping miss count  
_skgxp_gen_rpc_no_path_check_in_sec ANT ping protocol miss count  
_skgxp_gen_rpc_timeout_in_sec VRPC request timeout when ANT enabled  
_skgxp_inets limit SKGXP networks limit SKGXP networks (oss)
_skgxp_min_rpc_rcv_zcpy_len IPC threshold for rpc rcv zcpy operation (default = 0 - disabled)  
_skgxp_min_zcpy_len IPC threshold for zcpy operation (default = 0 - disabled)  
_skgxp_reaping tune skgxp OSD reaping limit  
_skgxp_rgn_ports region socket limits (0xFFFFNNXX): F=flags, N=min, X=max  
_skgxp_spare_param1 ipc oss spare parameter 1  
_skgxp_spare_param2 ipc oss spare parameter 2  
_skgxp_spare_param3 ipc oss spare parameter 3  
_skgxp_spare_param4 ipc oss spare parameter 4  
_skgxp_spare_param5 ipc oss spare parameter 5  
_skgxp_udp_ach_reaping_time time in minutes before idle ach's are reaped  
_skgxp_udp_ack_delay Enables delayed acks  
_skgxp_udp_enable_dynamic_credit_mgmt Enables dynamic credit management  
_skgxp_udp_hiwat_warn ach hiwat mark warning interval  
_skgxp_udp_interface_detection_time_secs time in seconds between interface detection checks  
_skgxp_udp_keep_alive_ping_timer_secs connection idle time in seconds before keep alive is initiated. min: 30 sec max: 1800 sec default: 300 sec  
_skgxp_udp_lmp_mtusize MTU size for UDP LMP testing  
_skgxp_udp_lmp_on enable UDP long message protection  
_skgxp_udp_timed_wait_buffering diagnostic log buffering space (in bytes) for timed wait (0 means unbufferd  
_skgxp_udp_timed_wait_seconds time in seconds before timed wait is invoked  
_skgxp_udp_use_tcb disable use of high speek timer  
_skgxp_zcpy_flags IPC zcpy options flags  
_skgxpg_last_parameter last defined skgxpg parameter - oss  
_skip_acfs_checks n/a Override checking if on an ACFS file system  
_skip_app_object_check n/a Skip application object checks  
_skip_app_unconverted_check n/a Skip application unconverted check  
_skip_assume_msg if TRUE, skip assume message for consigns at the master  
_skip_pdb_recovery_if_keystore_not_open n/a Skip PDB recovery when the PDB's keystore is not open  
_skip_pset_col_chk n/a skip validation of partition set keys in DML  
_skip_trstamp_check Skip terminal recovery stamp check  
_skip_unconverted_change_vector n/a Skip apply of a CV that has no endian conversion function  
_slave_mapping_enabled enable slave mapping when TRUE  
_slave_mapping_group_size force the number of slave group in a slave mapper  
_slave_mapping_skew_ratio maximum skew before slave mapping is disabled  
_slow_kill_on_pdb_close_immediate n/a Kill sessions periodically on pdb close immediate  
_small_table_threshold lower threshold level of table size for direct reads  
_smm_advice_enabled if TRUE, enable v$pga_advice  
_smm_advice_log_size overwrites default size of the PGA advice workarea history log  
_smm_auto_cost_enabled if TRUE, use the AUTO size policy cost functions  
_smm_auto_max_io_size Maximum IO size (in KB) used by sort/hash-join in auto mode  
_smm_auto_min_io_size Minimum IO size (in KB) used by sort/hash-join in auto mode  
_smm_bound overwrites memory manager automatically computed bound  
_smm_control provides controls on the memory manager  
_smm_freeable_retain value in KB of the instance freeable PGA memory to retain  
_smm_isort_cap maximum work area for insertion sort(v1)  
_smm_max_size maximum work area size in auto mode (serial)  
_smm_max_size_static static maximum work area size in auto mode (serial)  
_smm_min_size minimum work area size in auto mode  
_smm_px_max_size maximum work area size in auto mode (global)  
_smm_px_max_size_static static maximum work area size in auto mode (global)  
_smm_retain_size work area retain size in SGA for shared server sessions (0 for AUTO)  
_smm_trace Turn on/off tracing for SQL memory manager  
_smon_internal_errlimit limit of SMON internal errors  
_smon_undo_seg_rescan_limit limit of SMON continous undo segments re-scan  
_smu_debug_mode <debug-flag> - set debug event for testing SMU operations  
_smu_error_simulation_site site ID of error simulation in KTU code  
_smu_error_simulation_type error type for error simulation in KTU code  
_smu_timeouts comma-separated *AND double-quoted* list of AUM timeouts: mql, tur, sess_exprn, qry_exprn, slot_intvl  
_snapshot_recovery_enabled n/a enable/disable snapshot recovery  
_so_max_inc n/a SO max inc  
_so_percent_lower_bound_final n/a SO percent lower bound final  
_so_percent_lower_bound_strt n/a SO percent lower bound start  
_so_percent_upper_bound_final n/a SO percent upper bound final  
_so_percent_upper_bound_strt n/a SO percent upper bound start  
_sort_elimination_cost_ratio cost ratio for sort eimination under first_rows mode  
_sort_multiblock_read_count multi-block read count for sort  
_sort_spill_threshold force sort to spill to disk each time this many rows are received  
_sort_sync_min_spill_threshold n/a controls the mininum spill size for synchronized spill (in percent)  
_sort_sync_min_spillsize n/a controls the size of mininum run size for synchronized spill (in kb)  
_space_align_size space align size  
_spacebg_sync_segblocks n/a to enable/disable segmon driver  
_spacereuse_track_memlimit n/a Percentage of shared pool for use by spacereuse tracking  
_spadr n/a _SPADR  
_spare_test_parameter Spare test parameter  
_sparse_backing_file specifies sparse backing file  
_spawn_diag_opts thread spawn diagnostic options  
_spawn_diag_thresh_secs thread spawn diagnostic minimal threshold in seconds  
_spfdc n/a SPFDC  
_spfei n/a SPFEI  
_spfoc n/a SPFOC  
_spin_count Amount to spin waiting for a latch  
_split_file_copy n/a Enable block-level parallelism for file copy in Create PDB  
_spr_max_rules maximum number of rules in sql spreadsheet  
_spr_push_pred_refspr push predicates through reference spreadsheet  
_spr_use_AW_AS enable AW for hash table in spreadsheet  
_spr_use_hash_table n/a use hash table for spreadsheet  
_sql_alias_scope n/a Use only SQL name resolution for a column whose alias matches that of some table  
_sql_analyze_enable_auto_txn SQL Analyze Autonomous Transaction control parameter  
_sql_analyze_parse_model SQL Analyze Parse Model control parameter  
_sql_compatibility sql compatability bit vector  
_sql_connect_capability_override SQL Connect Capability Table Override  
_sql_connect_capability_table SQL Connect Capability Table (testing only)  
_sql_diag_repo_origin n/a duarations where sql diag repository are retained  
_sql_diag_repo_retain n/a retain sql diag repository to cursor or not  
_sql_hash_debug Hash value of the SQL statement to debug  
_sql_hvshare_debug n/a control hash value sharing debug level  
_sql_hvshare_threshold n/a threshold to control hash value sharing across operators  
_sql_model_unfold_forloops specifies compile-time unfolding of sql model forloops  
_sql_ncg_mode Optimization mode for SQL NCG  
_sql_plan_directive_mgmt_control n/a controls internal SQL Plan Directive management activities  
_sql_plan_management_control controls various internal SQL Plan Management algorithms  
_sql_show_expreval n/a show expression evalution as shared hash producer in plan  
_sqlexec_bitmap_options n/a settings for bitmap count distinct optimizations  
_sqlexec_bitmap_sparse_size n/a maximum number of sparse bitmap values  
_sqlexec_cache_aware_hash_aggr_enabled n/a enable/disable cache aware hash aggregation  
_sqlexec_cache_aware_hash_join_enabled n/a enable/disable cache aware hash join  
_sqlexec_disable_hash_based_distagg_tiv n/a disable hash based distinct aggregation in TIV for gby queries  
_sqlexec_distagg_optimization_settings n/a settings for distinct aggregation optimizations  
_sqlexec_encoding_aware_hj_enabled n/a enable/disable encoding aware hash join  
_sqlexec_encoding_aware_hj_min_compression_ratio n/a minimum compression ratio to leverage encoding for HJ probe  
_sqlexec_hash_based_distagg_enabled n/a enable hash based distinct aggregation for gby queries  
_sqlexec_hash_based_distagg_ssf_enabled n/a enable hash based distinct aggregation for single set gby queries  
_sqlexec_hash_join_uses_xmem n/a enable/disable xmem PGA for hash join areas  
_sqlexec_join_group_aware_hj_enabled n/a enable/disable join group aware hash join  
_sqlexec_join_group_aware_hj_unencoded_rowsets_tolerated n/a minimum number of unencoded rowsets processed before adaptation  
_sqlexec_progression_cost n/a sql execution progression monitoring cost threshold  
_sqlexec_pwiseops_with_binds_enabled n/a enable partition wise execution in the presence of bind variables in inlist equality operator in where clause  
_sqlexec_pwiseops_with_sqlfuncs_enabled n/a enables partition wise operations even in the presence of functions over table partition keys  
_sqlexec_reorder_wif_enabled n/a enable re-ordering of window functions  
_sqlexec_sort_uses_xmem n/a enable/disable xmem PGA for sort areas  
_sqlexec_use_kgghash3 n/a use CRC-based hash function  
_sqlexec_use_rwo_aware_expr_analysis n/a enable/disable the usage of row vector aware expression analysis  
_sqlmon_binds_xml_format format of column binds_xml in [G]V$SQL_MONITOR  
_sqlmon_max_plan Maximum number of plans entry that can be monitored. Defaults to 20 per CPU  
_sqlmon_max_planlines Number of plan lines beyond which a plan cannot be monitored  
_sqlmon_recycle_time Minimum time (in s) to wait before a plan entry can be recycled  
_sqlmon_threshold CPU/IO time threshold before a statement is monitored. 0 is disabled  
_sqlset_hash_max_size n/a Max size of hash table used when loading into a SQL set  
_sqltune_category_parsed Parsed category qualifier for applying hintsets  
_srvntfn_job_deq_timeout srvntfn job deq timeout  
_srvntfn_jobsubmit_interval srvntfn job submit interval  
_srvntfn_max_concurrent_jobs srvntfn max concurrent jobs  
_srvntfn_q_msgcount srvntfn q msg count for job exit  
_srvntfn_q_msgcount_inc srvntfn q msg count increase for job submit  
_sscr_dir Session State Capture and Restore DIRectory object  
_sscr_osdir Session State Capture and Restore OS DIRectory  
_sta_control SQL Tuning Advisory control parameter  
_stack_guard_level stack guard level  
_standby_auto_flashback n/a Standby automatic flashback when primary flashed back  
_standby_causal_heartbeat_timeout readable standby causal heartbeat timeout  
_standby_flush_mode standby flush mode  
_standby_implicit_rcv_timeout minutes to wait for redo during standby implicit recovery  
_standby_newkey_keystore_location n/a Location of keystore on standby having new key  
_standby_switchover_timeout Number of secords for standby switchover enqueue timeout  
_stat_aggs_one_pass_algorithm n/a enable one pass algorithm for variance-related functions  
_static_backgrounds static backgrounds  
_statistics_based_srf_enabled enable/disable the use of statistics for storage reduction factor  
_stats_encryption_enabled n/a Enable statistics encryption on sensitive data  
_step_down_limit_in_pct step down limit in percentage  
_streams_pool_max_size streams pool maximum size when auto SGA enabled  
_strict_dml_data_link n/a Enable strict semantics for DML into [Extended] Data Link  
_strict_redaction_semantics n/a Strict Data Redaction semantics  
_subquery_pruning_cost_factor subquery pruning cost factor  
_subquery_pruning_enabled enable the use of subquery predicates to perform pruning  
_subquery_pruning_mv_enabled enable the use of subquery predicates with MVs to perform pruning  
_subquery_pruning_reduction subquery pruning reduction factor  
_super_shared_conversion_threshold n/a conversion threshold limit for supershared mode  
_super_shared_enable n/a enable super shared mode for latches  
_super_shared_max_exclusive_conversions n/a Maximum consecutive exclusive conversions to convert a super shared latch  
_suppress_identifiers_on_dupkey n/a supress owner index name err msg  
_suppress_migration_errors n/a Suppress migration errors during Application Sync  
_suspend_4031_timeout n/a sga timeout in seconds for 4031  
_suspend_4036_timeout n/a pga timeout in seconds for 4036  
_suspended_session_timeout n/a Timeout to kill suspended sess aft switchover  
_switch_current_scan_scn n/a switch current uses scan scn  
_switchover_through_cascade n/a Enable switchover through farsync  
_switchover_timeout n/a Switchover timeout in minutes  
_switchover_to_standby_option option for graceful switchover to standby  
_switchover_to_standby_switch_log Switchover to standby switches log for open redo threads  
_swrf_metric_frequent_mode Enable/disable SWRF Metric Frequent Mode Collection  
_swrf_mmon_dbfus Enable/disable SWRF MMON DB Feature Usage  
_swrf_mmon_flush Enable/disable SWRF MMON FLushing  
_swrf_mmon_metrics Enable/disable SWRF MMON Metrics Collection  
_swrf_on_disk_enabled Parameter to enable/disable SWRF  
_swrf_test_action test action parameter for SWRF  
_swrf_test_dbfus Enable/disable DB Feature Usage Testing  
_sync_app_pdb_first_open n/a sync application PDB automatically on first open  
_sync_primary_wait_time wait time for alter session sync with primary  
_synonym_repoint_tracing whether to trace metadata comparisons for synonym repointing  
_sys_logon_delay failed logon delay for sys The failed logon delay for the database instance
_sysaux_test_param test parameter for SYSAUX  
_sysdate_at_dbtimezone n/a return SYSDATE at database timezone  
_system_api_interception_debug enable debug tracing for system api interception  
_system_index_caching optimizer percent system index caching  
_system_partition_with_default n/a allow default partition for system partitioned tables  
_system_state_cputime_limit n/a cputime limit for system state dump  
_system_state_runtime_limit n/a runtime limit for system state dump  
_system_trig_enabled are system triggers enabled  
_ta_lns_wait_for_arch_log LNS Wait time for arhcived version of online log LNS Wait time for archived version of ORL
_table_lookup_prefetch_size table lookup prefetch vector size  
_table_lookup_prefetch_thresh table lookup prefetch threshold  
_table_scan_cost_plus_one bump estimated full table scan and index ffs cost by one  
_tablespace_encryption_default_algorithm n/a default tablespace encryption block cipher mode  
_tablespaces_per_transaction estimated number of tablespaces manipulated by each transaction  
_target_log_write_size n/a Do log write if this many redo blocks in buffer (auto=0)  
_target_log_write_size_percent_for_poke n/a Ask LGWR to write if strand has this % of target write size blocks  
_target_log_write_size_spinwait n/a How long LGWR spins to waits for target write size blocks  
_target_log_write_size_timeout n/a How long LGWR will wait for redo to accumulate (msecs)  
_target_rba_max_lag_percentage target rba max log lag percentage  
_tdb_debug_mode set debug mode for testing transportable database  
_temp_tran_block_threshold number of blocks for a dimension before we temp transform  
_temp_tran_cache determines if temp table is created with cache option  
_temp_undo_disable_adg n/a is temp undo disabled on ADG  
_temp_undo_optimal_extents n/a optimal number of extents for temp undo  
_tenth_spare_parameter tenth spare parameter - integer  
_test_hm_extent_map n/a heatmap related - to be used by oracle dev only  
_test_ksusigskip test the function ksusigskip  
_test_offload_pdb_sga_init n/a Test offload of PDB SGA creation  
_test_param_1 test parmeter 1 - integer  
_test_param_10 n/a test parameter 10 - string param  
_test_param_10_bi n/a test parameter 10 - bigint param  
_test_param_10_i n/a test parameter 10 - int param  
_test_param_11_base n/a test parameter 11 base  
_test_param_11_dep n/a test parameter 11 dependent  
_test_param_12 n/a test parameter 12 - int param  
_test_param_2 test parameter 2 - string  
_test_param_3 test parameter 3 - string  
_test_param_4 test parameter 4 - string list  
_test_param_5 test parmeter 5 - deprecated integer  
_test_param_6 test parmeter 6 - size (ub8)  
_test_param_7 test parmeter 7 - size (integer) test parameter 7 - big integer list
_test_param_8 n/a test parameter 8 - cdb tests  
_test_param_9 n/a test parameter 9 - umbrella param  
_test_param_9_1 n/a test parameter 9_1 - cascade param1  
_test_param_9_2 n/a test parameter 9_2 - cascade param2  
_test_param_9_3 n/a test parameter 9_3 - cascade param3  
_test_xmem_alloc_size n/a unit test xmem alloc size  
_third_spare_parameter third spare parameter - integer  
_thirteenth_spare_parameter thirteenth spare parameter - integer  
_thirtieth_spare_parameter thirtieth spare parameter - string list thirtieth spare parameter - integer
_thirty-eighth_spare_parameter thirty-eighth spare parameter - boolean thirty-eighth spare parameter - integer
_thirty-fifth_spare_parameter thirty-fifth spare parameter - string list thirty-fifth spare parameter - integer
_thirty-first_spare_parameter thirty-first spare parameter - string list thirty-first spare parameter - integer
_thirty-fourth_spare_parameter thirty-fourth spare parameter - string list thirty-fourth spare parameter - integer
_thirty-nineth_spare_parameter n/a thirty-nineth spare parameter - boolean  
_thirty-ninth_spare_parameter n/a thirty-ninth spare parameter - integer  
_thirty-second_spare_parameter thirty-second spare parameter - string list thirty-second spare parameter - integer
_thirty-seventh_spare_parameter thirty-seventh spare parameter - boolean thirty-seventh spare parameter - integer
_thirty-sixth_spare_parameter thirty-sixth spare parameter - boolean thirty-sixth spare parameter - integer
_thirty-third_spare_parameter thirty-third spare parameter - string list thirty-third spare parameter - integer
_thread_state_change_timeout_pnp n/a Thread state change timeout for PnP instance (in sec)  
_threshold_alerts_enable if 1, issue threshold-based alerts  
_time_based_rcv_ckpt_target n/a time-based incremental recovery checkpoint target in sec  
_time_based_rcv_hdr_update_interval n/a time-based incremental recovery file header update interval in sec  
_timemodel_collection enable timemodel collection  
_timeout_actions_enabled enables or disables KSU timeout actions  
_timer_precision VKTM timer precision in milli-sec  
_total_large_extent_memory Total memory for allocating large extents  
_touch_sga_pages_during_allocation n/a touch SGA pages during allocation  
_tq_dump_period time period for duping of TQ statistics (s)  
_trace_buffer_wait_timeouts trace buffer busy wait timeouts  
_trace_buffers trace buffer sizes per process  
_trace_dump_all_procs if TRUE on error buckets of all processes will be dumped to the current trace file  
_trace_dump_client_buckets if TRUE dump client (ie. non-kst) buckets  
_trace_dump_cur_proc_only if TRUE on error just dump our process bucket  
_trace_dump_static_only if TRUE filter trace dumps to always loaded dlls  
_trace_events trace events enabled at startup  
_trace_files_public Create publicly accessible trace files  
_trace_kqlidp trace kqlidp0 operation  
_trace_ktds n/a Trace block reuse  
_trace_ktfs n/a Trace ILM Stats Tracking  
_trace_ktfs_mem n/a Debug memleak  
_trace_navigation_scope enabling trace navigation linking  
_trace_pin_time trace how long a current pin is held  
_trace_pool_size trace pool size in bytes  
_trace_processes enable KST tracing in process  
_trace_temp n/a Trace Tempspace Management  
_trace_virtual_columns trace virtual columns exprs  
_track_metrics_memory Enable/disable Metrics Memory Tracking  
_track_space_reuse n/a SpaceReuse Tracking  
_track_space_reuse_rac n/a SpaceReuse Tracking Enable in RAC  
_transaction_auditing transaction auditing records generated in the redo log  
_transaction_recovery_servers max number of parallel recovery slaves that may be used  
_transient_logical_clear_hold_mrp_bit clear KCCDI2HMRP flag during standby recovery  
_truncate_optimization_enabled do truncate optimization if set to TRUE  
_tsenc_obfuscate_key n/a Encryption key obfuscation in memory  
_tsenc_tracing Enable TS encryption tracing  
_tsm_connect_string TSM test connect string  
_tsm_disable_auto_cleanup Disable TSM auto cleanup actions  
_tstz_localtime_bypass Should TTC not convert to LocalTime to preserve Timestamp with Timezone values  
_tts_allow_charset_mismatch allow plugging in a tablespace with an incompatible character set  
_twelfth_spare_parameter twelfth spare parameter - integer  
_twentieth_spare_parameter twentieth spare parameter - string twentieth spare parameter - integer
_twenty-eighth_spare_parameter twenty-eighth spare parameter - string list twenty-eighth spare parameter - integer
_twenty-fifth_spare_parameter twenty-fifth spare parameter - string twenty-fifth spare parameter - integer
_twenty-first_spare_parameter twenty-first spare parameter - string twenty-first spare parameter - integer
_twenty-fourth_spare_parameter twenty-fourth spare parameter - string twenty-fourth spare parameter - integer
_twenty-nineth_spare_parameter n/a twenty-nineth spare parameter - string list  
_twenty-ninth_spare_parameter n/a twenty-ninth spare parameter - integer  
_twenty-second_spare_parameter twenty-second spare parameter - string twenty-second spare parameter - integer
_twenty-seventh_spare_parameter twenty-seventh spare parameter - string list twenty-seventh spare parameter - integer
_twenty-sixth_spare_parameter twenty-sixth spare parameter - string list twenty-sixth spare parameter - integer
_twenty-third_spare_parameter twenty-third spare parameter - string twenty-third spare parameter - integer
_two-hundred-and-eighteenth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-eighteenth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-eighth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-eighth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-eleventh_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-eleventh spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-fifteenth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-fifteenth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-fifth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-fifth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-first_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-first spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-fourteenth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-fourteenth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-fourth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-fourth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-nineteenth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-nineteenth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-ninth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-ninth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-second_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-second spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-seventeenth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-seventeenth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-seventh_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-seventh spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-sixteenth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-sixteenth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-sixth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-sixth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-tenth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-tenth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-third_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-third spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-thirteenth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-thirteenth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-twelfth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-twelfth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundred-and-twentieth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundred-and-twentieth spare parameter - boolean  
_two-hundredth_spare_parameter n/a two-hundredth spare parameter - boolean  
_two_pass enable two-pass thread recovery  
_two_pass_reverse_polish_enabled uses two-pass reverse polish alg. to generate canonical forms  
_txn_control_trace_buf_size n/a size the in-memory buffer size of txn control  
_uga_cga_large_extent_size UGA/CGA large extent size  
_ultrafast_latch_statistics maintain fast-path statistics for ultrafast latches  
_umf_remote_enabled n/a Enable remote UMF operations  
_umf_remote_target_dblink n/a UMF Remote Target DBLink for Flushing  
_umf_test_action n/a test action parameter for UMF  
_undo_autotune enable auto tuning of undo_retention  
_undo_block_compression enable undo block compression  
_undo_debug_mode debug flag for undo related operations  
_undo_debug_usage invoke undo usage functions for testing  
_undo_tbs_slave_percent n/a Percentage of redo slaves for undo tablespace  
_undotbs_regular_tables n/a Create regular tables in undo tablespace  
_undotbs_stepdown_pcent n/a Undo Tablespace small allocation step down percentage  
_unified_audit_flush_interval n/a Unified Audit SGA Queue Flush Interval  
_unified_audit_flush_threshold n/a Unified Audit SGA Queue Flush Threshold  
_unified_audit_policy_disabled n/a Disable Default Unified Audit Policies on DB Create  
_unified_pga_pool_size n/a size in bytes of the unified pga pool  
_union_rewrite_for_gs expand queries with GSets into UNIONs for rewrite  
_uniq_cons_sql_enforcement n/a disable extended data unique constraint SQL enforcement  
_unnest_subquery enables unnesting of complex subqueries  
_unused_block_compression enable unused block compression  
_update_datafile_headers_with_space_information user requested update of datafile headers of locally managed datafiles with space information  
_upddel_dba_hash_mask_bits n/a controls masking of lower order bits in DBA  
_upgrade_capture_noops n/a do not skip capturing noops during upgrade  
_upgrade_optim n/a Upgrade optimization enabled  
_usd_preload_blks n/a USD preload block count for prefetch  
_usd_recent_read n/a Allow to scan recent USD blocks  
_use_adaptive_log_file_sync Adaptively switch between post/wait and polling  
_use_best_fit use best fit to allocate space  
_use_cached_asm_free_space n/a Should x$kttets use cached ASM free space info  
_use_column_stats_for_function enable the use of column statistics for DDP functions  
_use_dynamic_shares n/a use dynamic shares  
_use_fallocate_for_mga n/a MGA fallocate enabled  
_use_fips_mode n/a Enable use of crypographic libraries in FIPS mode  
_use_futex_ipc n/a use futex ipc  
_use_hugetlbfs_for_SGA n/a Enable HugeTLBFS usage for SGA  
_use_hugetlbfs_per_granule n/a Enable file per granule with HugeTLBFS  
_use_hybrid_encryption_mode Enable platform optimized encryption in hybrid mode  
_use_ism Enable Shared Page Tables - ISM  
_use_ism_for_pga Use ISM for allocating large extents  
_use_large_pages_for_mga n/a MGA largepage enabled  
_use_nosegment_indexes use nosegment indexes in explain plan  
_use_pdb_parselock n/a use PDB level parselock on ADG  
_use_platform_compression_lib Enable platform optimized compression implementation  
_use_platform_encryption_lib Enable platform optimized encryption implementation  
_use_platform_hash_function n/a control use of platform specific hash function  
_use_realfree_heap use real-free based allocator for PGA memory  
_use_seq_process_cache whether to use process local seq cache  
_use_single_log_writer n/a Use a single process for redo log writing  
_use_vector_post use vector post  
_use_zero_copy_io Should network vector IO interface be used for data transfer  
_user_defined_sharding n/a enable user-defined sharding  
_utl32k_mv_query n/a utl32k.sql is compiling a materialized view query  
_utlmmig_table_stats_gathering n/a enable/disable utlmmig table stats gathering at upgrade  
_uts_enable_alltrc_stats n/a Enables accounting of trace data in incident and cdmp trace files  
_uts_first_segment_retain n/a Should we retain the first trace segment  
_uts_first_segment_size n/a Maximum size (in bytes) of first segments  
_uts_inc_inmem_trace n/a Controls UTS in-memory tracing during an active incident  
_uts_trace_buffer_size n/a Trace disk buffer size  
_uts_trace_disk_threshold n/a Trace disk threshold parameter  
_uts_trace_files_nopurge n/a Sets trace files to not get purged  
_uts_trace_segment_size n/a Maximum size (in bytes) of a trace segment  
_uts_trace_segments n/a Maximum number of trace segments  
_validate_flashback_database Scan database to validate result of flashback database  
_validate_metric_groups Enable/disable SGA Metric Structure validation  
_validate_readmem_redo validate redo blocks read from in-memory log buffer  
_vector_aggregation_max_size n/a max size of vector aggregation space  
_vector_dense_accum_max n/a vector group by dense accumulator space max  
_vector_encoding_mode n/a enable vector encoding(OFF/MANUAL/AUTO)  
_vector_operations_control n/a control different uses/algorithms related to vector transform  
_vector_serialize_temp_threshold n/a threshold for serializing vector transform temp table writes  
_vendor_lib_loc Vendor library search root directory  
_verify_encrypted_tablespace_keys n/a if TRUE, verify encryption key signature for data files  
_verify_fg_log_checksum LGWR verifies redo checksums generated by foreground processes  
_verify_flashback_redo Verify that the redo logs needed for flashback are available  
_verify_undo_quota TRUE - verify consistency of undo quota statistics  
_very_large_object_threshold upper threshold level of object size for direct reads  
_very_large_partitioned_table n/a very_large_partitioned_table  
_virtual_column_access_control n/a require VPD/RAS protection for virtual columns derived from protected columns  
_virtual_column_overload_allowed overload virtual columns expression  
_vkrm_schedule_interval VKRM scheduling interval  
_vktm_assert_thresh soft assert threshold VKTM timer drift  
_wait_breakup_threshold_csecs Wait breakup threshold (in centiseconds)  
_wait_breakup_time_csecs Wait breakup time (in centiseconds)  
_wait_for_busy_session n/a Wait time before killing active sessions during switchover  
_wait_for_sync wait for sync on commit MUST BE ALWAYS TRUE  
_wait_outlier_detection_enable n/a Enable wait outlier detection module?  
_wait_outlier_dump_flags n/a Wait Outlier Dump Flags  
_wait_outlier_event_names n/a Wait events to watch for outliers  
_wait_outlier_lambda_x1000 n/a Lambda (in thousands) to compute outliers  
_wait_outlier_min_waits n/a Minimum waits required to enable wait outliers detection  
_wait_outlier_num_outliers n/a Max number of outliers tracked  
_wait_samples_max_sections Wait Samples maximum sections  
_wait_samples_max_time_secs Wait Samples maximum time in seconds  
_wait_tracker_interval_secs Wait Tracker number of seconds per interval  
_wait_tracker_num_intervals Wait Tracker number of intervals  
_wait_yield_hp_mode Wait Yield - High Priority Mode  
_wait_yield_mode Wait Yield - Mode  
_wait_yield_sleep_freq Wait Yield - Sleep Frequency  
_wait_yield_sleep_time_msecs Wait Yield - Sleep Time (in milliseconds)  
_wait_yield_yield_freq Wait Yield - Yield Frequency  
_walk_insert_threshold maximum number of unusable blocks to walk across freelist  
_watchpoint_on is the watchpointing feature turned on?  
_wcr_control Oracle internal test WCR parameter used ONLY for testing!  
_wcr_grv_cache_size Oracle internal: Set the replay cache size for WRR$_REPLAY_DATA.  
_wcr_seq_cache_size Oracle internal: Set the replay cache size for WRR$_REPLAY_SEQ_DATA.  
_wcr_test_action n/a Oracle internal test WCR parameter used for test actions  
_widetab_comp_enabled n/a wide table compression enabled  
_windowfunc_optimization_settings settings for window function optimizations  
_with_subquery WITH subquery transformation  
_worker_threads n/a Number of worker threads  
_workload_attributes n/a session workload attributes  
_workload_attributes_spare_param n/a connect string workload behavior spare param  
_write_clones write clones flag  
_xa_internal_retries number of internal retries for xa transactions  
_xds_max_child_cursors n/a Maximum number of XDS user-specific child cursors  
_xengem_devname override default VM GEM device name used by skgvm  
_xengem_diagmode set to OFF to disable VM GEM support and functionalities  
_xengem_enabled Enable OVM GEM support  
_xpl_peeked_binds_log_size maximum bytes for logging peeked bind values for V$SQL_PLAN (0 = OFF)  
_xpl_trace Explain Plan tracing parameter  
_xs_cleanup_task n/a Triton Session Cleanup  
_xs_dispatcher_only n/a XS dispatcher only mode  
_xs_logon_grant n/a Create session privilege is required for RAS direct logon user to login to database  
_xsolapi_auto_materialization_bound OLAP API lower bound for auto materialization.  
_xsolapi_auto_materialization_type OLAP API behavior for auto materialization  
_xsolapi_build_trace OLAP API output build info to trace file OLAP API output build info to trace file
_xsolapi_debug_output OLAP API debug output disposition  
_xsolapi_densify_cubes OLAP API cube densification  
_xsolapi_dimension_group_creation OLAP API symmetric overfetch  
_xsolapi_dml_trace OLAP API output dml commands and expressions to trace file OLAP API output dml commands and expressions to trace file
_xsolapi_fetch_type OLAP API fetch type  
_xsolapi_fix_vptrs OLAP API Enable vptr fixing logic in shared server mode  
_xsolapi_generate_with_clause OLAP API generates WITH clause?  
_xsolapi_hierarchy_value_type OLAP API hierarchy value type  
_xsolapi_load_at_process_start When to load OLAP API library at server process start  
_xsolapi_materialization_rowcache_min_rows_for_use OLAP API min number of rows required to use rowcache in query materialization  
_xsolapi_materialize_sources OLAP API Enable source materialization  
_xsolapi_metadata_reader_mode OLAP API metadata reader mode  
_xsolapi_odbo_mode OLAP API uses ODBO mode?  
_xsolapi_opt_aw_position OLAP API enables AW position and count optimization?  
_xsolapi_optimize_suppression OLAP API optimizes suppressions?  
_xsolapi_precompute_subquery OLAP API precomputes subqueries?  
_xsolapi_remove_columns_for_materialization OLAP API removes columns for materialization?  
_xsolapi_set_nls OLAP API sets NLS?  
_xsolapi_share_executors OLAP API share executors?  
_xsolapi_source_trace OLAP API output Source definitions to trace file OLAP API output Source definitions to trace file
_xsolapi_sql_all_multi_join_non_base_hints OLAP API multi-join non-base hints  
_xsolapi_sql_all_non_base_hints OLAP API non-base hints  
_xsolapi_sql_auto_dimension_hints OLAP API enable automatic dimension hints  
_xsolapi_sql_auto_measure_hints OLAP API enable automatic measure hints  
_xsolapi_sql_dimension_hints OLAP API dimension hints  
_xsolapi_sql_enable_aw_join OLAP API enables AW join?  
_xsolapi_sql_enable_aw_qdr_merge OLAP API enables AW QDR merge?  
_xsolapi_sql_hints OLAP API generic hints  
_xsolapi_sql_measure_hints OLAP API measure hints  
_xsolapi_sql_minus_threshold OLAP API SQL MINUS threshold  
_xsolapi_sql_optimize OLAP API enable optimization  
_xsolapi_sql_prepare_stmt_cache_size OLAP API prepare statement cache size  
_xsolapi_sql_remove_columns OLAP API enable remove unused columns optimizations  
_xsolapi_sql_result_set_cache_size OLAP API result set cache size  
_xsolapi_sql_symmetric_predicate OLAP API enable symmetric predicate for dimension groups  
_xsolapi_sql_top_dimension_hints OLAP API top dimension hints  
_xsolapi_sql_top_measure_hints OLAP API top measure hints  
_xsolapi_sql_use_bind_variables OLAP API enable bind variables optimization  
_xsolapi_stringify_order_levels OLAP API stringifies order levels?  
_xsolapi_support_mtm OLAP API MTM mapping classes supported?  
_xsolapi_suppression_aw_mask_threshold OLAP API suppression AW mask threshold  
_xsolapi_suppression_chunk_size OLAP API suppression chunk size  
_xsolapi_use_models OLAP API uses models?  
_xsolapi_use_olap_dml OLAP API uses OLAP DML?  
_xsolapi_use_olap_dml_for_rank OLAP API uses OLAP DML for rank?  
_xt_coverage external tables code coverage parameter  
_xt_def_compression_ratio n/a Default compression ratio for external table data files  
_xt_enable_columnar_fetch n/a Enable external table columnar fetch  
_xt_http_wscl n/a Use KGWSCL for HTTP requests  
_xt_legacy_debug_flags n/a Debug flags for ORACLE_LOADER and ORACLE_DATAPUMP  
_xt_preproc_timeout n/a external table preprocessor timeout  
_xt_sampling_scan_granules n/a Granule Sampling for Block Sampling of External Tables  
_xt_sampling_scan_granules_min_granules n/a Minimum number of granules to scan for granule sampling  
_xt_trace external tables trace parameter  
_xtbigdata_max_buffersize n/a maximum size of IO Buffers for exadoop external tables (in KB)  
_xtbuffer_size buffer size in KB needed for populate/query operation  
_xtts_allow_pre10 allow cross platform for pre10 compatible tablespace  
_xtts_set_platform_info set cross platform info during file header read  
_zonemap_control n/a control different uses/algorithms related to zonemaps  
_zonemap_staleness_tracking n/a control the staleness tracking of zonemaps via trigger  
_zonemap_usage_tracking n/a Control the capture of zonemap usage statistics  
_zonemap_use_enabled n/a enable the use of zonemaps for IO pruning  
active_instance_count number of active instances in the cluster database  
adg_account_info_tracking n/a ADG user account info tracked in standby(LOCAL) or in Primary(GLOBAL)  
adg_redirect_dml n/a Enable DML Redirection from ADG  
allow_global_dblinks n/a LDAP lookup for DBLINKS  
allow_group_access_to_sga n/a Allow read access for SGA to users of Oracle owner group  
allow_rowid_column_type n/a Allow creation of rowid column  
approx_for_aggregation n/a Replace exact aggregation with approximate aggregation  
approx_for_count_distinct n/a Replace count distinct with approx_count_distinct  
approx_for_percentile n/a Replace percentile_* with approx_percentile  
aq_tm_processes number of AQ Time Managers to start  
archive_lag_target Maximum number of seconds of redos the standby could lose  
asm_diskgroups disk groups to mount automatically  
asm_diskstring disk set locations for discovery  
asm_io_processes n/a number of I/O processes per domain in the ASM IOSERVER instance  
asm_power_limit number of parallel relocations for disk rebalancing  
asm_preferred_read_failure_groups preferred read failure groups  
audit_file_dest Directory in which auditing files are to reside  
audit_sys_operations enable sys auditing  
audit_syslog_level Syslog facility and level  
audit_trail enable system auditing  
autotask_max_active_pdbs n/a Setting for Autotask Maximum Maintenance PDBs  
awr_pdb_autoflush_enabled n/a Enable/Disable AWR automatic PDB flushing  
awr_pdb_max_parallel_slaves n/a maximum concurrent AWR PDB MMON slaves per instance  
awr_snapshot_time_offset Setting for AWR Snapshot Time Offset  
background_core_dump Core Size for Background Processes  
background_dump_dest Detached process dump directory  
backup_tape_io_slaves BACKUP Tape I/O slaves  
bitmap_merge_area_size maximum memory allow for BITMAP MERGE  
blank_trimming blank trimming semantics parameter  
buffer_pool_keep Number of database blocks/latches in keep buffer pool  
buffer_pool_recycle Number of database blocks/latches in recycle buffer pool  
cdb_cluster n/a if TRUE startup in CDB Cluster mode  
cdb_cluster_name n/a CDB Cluster name  
cell_offload_compaction Cell packet compaction strategy  
cell_offload_decryption enable SQL processing offload of encrypted data to cells  
cell_offload_parameters Additional cell offload parameters  
cell_offload_plan_display Cell offload explain plan display  
cell_offload_processing enable SQL processing offload to cells  
cell_offloadgroup_name Set the offload group name  
circuits max number of circuits  
client_result_cache_lag client result cache maximum lag in milliseconds  
client_result_cache_size client result cache max size in bytes  
client_statistics_level n/a Client Statistics Level  
clonedb clone database  
clonedb_dir n/a CloneDB Directory  
cluster_database if TRUE startup in cluster database mode  
cluster_database_instances number of instances to use for sizing cluster db SGA structures  
cluster_interconnects interconnects for RAC use  
commit_logging transaction commit log write behaviour  
commit_point_strength Bias this node has toward not preparing in a two-phase commit  
commit_wait transaction commit log wait behaviour  
commit_write transaction commit log write behaviour  
common_user_prefix n/a Enforce restriction on a prefix of a Common User/Role/Profile name  
compatible Database will be completely compatible with this software version  
connection_brokers n/a connection brokers specification  
containers_parallel_degree n/a Parallel degree for a CONTAINERS() query  
control_file_record_keep_time control file record keep time in days  
control_files control file names list  
control_management_pack_access declares which manageability packs are enabled  
core_dump_dest Core dump directory  
cpu_count number of CPUs for this instance maximum number of CPUs
cpu_min_count n/a minimum number of CPUs required  
create_bitmap_area_size size of create bitmap buffer for bitmap index  
create_stored_outlines create stored outlines for DML statements  
cursor_bind_capture_destination Allowed destination for captured bind variables  
cursor_invalidation n/a default for DDL cursor invalidation semantics  
cursor_sharing cursor sharing mode  
cursor_space_for_time use more memory in order to get faster execution  
data_guard_max_io_time n/a maximum I/O time before process considered hung  
data_guard_max_longio_time n/a maximum long I/O time before process considered hung  
data_guard_sync_latency n/a Data Guard SYNC latency  
data_transfer_cache_size n/a Size of data transfer cache  
db_16k_cache_size Size of cache for 16K buffers  
db_2k_cache_size Size of cache for 2K buffers  
db_32k_cache_size Size of cache for 32K buffers  
db_4k_cache_size Size of cache for 4K buffers  
db_8k_cache_size Size of cache for 8K buffers  
db_big_table_cache_percent_target n/a Big table cache target size in percentage  
db_block_buffers Number of database blocks cached in memory  
db_block_checking header checking and data and index block checking  
db_block_checksum store checksum in db blocks and check during reads  
db_block_size Size of database block in bytes  
db_cache_advice Buffer cache sizing advisory  
db_cache_size Size of DEFAULT buffer pool for standard block size buffers  
db_create_file_dest default database location  
db_create_online_log_dest_1 online log/controlfile destination #1  
db_create_online_log_dest_2 online log/controlfile destination #2  
db_create_online_log_dest_3 online log/controlfile destination #3  
db_create_online_log_dest_4 online log/controlfile destination #4  
db_create_online_log_dest_5 online log/controlfile destination #5  
db_domain directory part of global database name stored with CREATE DATABASE  
db_file_multiblock_read_count db block to be read each IO  
db_file_name_convert datafile name convert patterns and strings for standby/clone db  
db_files max allowable # db files  
db_flash_cache_file flash cache file for default block size  
db_flash_cache_size flash cache size for db_flash_cache_file  
db_flashback_retention_target Maximum Flashback Database log retention time in minutes.  
db_index_compression_inheritance n/a options for table or tablespace level compression inheritance  
db_keep_cache_size Size of KEEP buffer pool for standard block size buffers  
db_lost_write_protect enable lost write detection  
db_name database name specified in CREATE DATABASE  
db_performance_profile n/a Database performance category  
db_recovery_file_dest default database recovery file location  
db_recovery_file_dest_size database recovery files size limit  
db_recycle_cache_size Size of RECYCLE buffer pool for standard block size buffers  
db_securefile permit securefile storage during lob creation  
db_ultra_safe Sets defaults for other parameters that control protection levels  
db_unique_name Database Unique Name  
db_unrecoverable_scn_tracking Track nologging SCN in controlfile  
db_writer_processes number of background database writer processes to start  
dbwr_io_slaves DBWR I/O slaves  
ddl_lock_timeout timeout to restrict the time that ddls wait for dml lock  
default_sharing n/a Default sharing clause  
deferred_segment_creation defer segment creation to first insert  
dg_broker_config_file1 data guard broker configuration file #1  
dg_broker_config_file2 data guard broker configuration file #2  
dg_broker_start start Data Guard broker (DMON process)  
diagnostic_dest diagnostic base directory  
disable_pdb_feature n/a Disable features  
disk_asynch_io Use asynch I/O for random access devices  
dispatchers specifications of dispatchers  
distributed_lock_timeout number of seconds a distributed transaction waits for a lock  
dml_locks dml locks - one for each table modified in a transaction  
dnfs_batch_size Max number of dNFS asynch I/O requests queued per session  
dst_upgrade_insert_conv Enables/Disables internal conversions during DST upgrade  
enable_automatic_maintenance_pdb n/a Enable/Disable Automated Maintenance for Non-Root PDB  
enable_ddl_logging enable ddl logging  
enable_dnfs_dispatcher n/a Enable DNFS Dispatcher  
enable_goldengate_replication goldengate replication enabled  
enable_imc_with_mira n/a enable IMC with multi instance redo apply  
enable_pluggable_database n/a Enable Pluggable Database  
enabled_PDBs_on_standby n/a List of Enabled PDB patterns  
encrypt_new_tablespaces n/a whether to encrypt newly created tablespaces  
event debug event control - default null string  
external_keystore_credential_location n/a external keystore credential location  
fal_client FAL client  
fal_server FAL server list  
fast_start_io_target Upper bound on recovery reads  
fast_start_mttr_target MTTR target in seconds  
fast_start_parallel_rollback max number of parallel recovery slaves that may be used  
file_mapping enable file mapping  
fileio_network_adapters Network Adapters for File I/O  
filesystemio_options IO operations on filesystem files  
fixed_date fixed SYSDATE value  
forward_listener n/a forward listener  
gcs_server_processes number of background gcs server processes to start  
global_context_pool_size n/a Global Application Context Pool Size in Bytes  
global_names enforce that database links have same name as remote database  
global_txn_processes number of background global transaction processes to start  
hash_area_size size of in-memory hash work area  
heat_map n/a ILM Heatmap Tracking  
hi_shared_memory_address SGA starting address (high order 32-bits on 64-bit platforms)  
hs_autoregister enable automatic server DD updates in HS agent self-registration  
http_proxy n/a http_proxy  
ifile include file in init.ora  
inmemory_adg_enabled n/a Enable IMC support on ADG  
inmemory_automatic_level n/a Enable Automatic In-Memory management  
inmemory_clause_default n/a Default in-memory clause for new tables  
inmemory_expressions_usage n/a Controls which In-Memory Expressions are populated in-memory  
inmemory_force n/a Force tables to be in-memory or not  
inmemory_max_populate_servers n/a maximum inmemory populate servers  
inmemory_optimized_arithmetic n/a Controls whether or not DSBs are stored in-memory  
inmemory_prefer_xmem_memcompress n/a Prefer to store tables with given memcompress levels in xmem  
inmemory_prefer_xmem_priority n/a Prefer to store tables with given priority levels in xmem  
inmemory_query n/a Specifies whether in-memory queries are allowed  
inmemory_size n/a size in bytes of in-memory area  
inmemory_trickle_repopulate_servers_percent n/a inmemory trickle repopulate servers percent  
inmemory_virtual_columns n/a Controls which user-defined virtual columns are stored in-memory  
inmemory_xmem_size n/a size in bytes of in-memory xmem area  
instance_abort_delay_time n/a time to delay an internal initiated abort (in seconds)  
instance_groups list of instance group names  
instance_mode n/a indicates whether the instance read-only or read-write or read-mostly  
instance_name instance name supported by the instance  
instance_number instance number  
instance_type type of instance to be executed  
instant_restore instant repopulation of datafiles  
java_jit_enabled Java VM JIT enabled  
java_max_sessionspace_size max allowed size in bytes of a Java sessionspace  
java_pool_size size in bytes of java pool  
java_restrict Restrict Java VM Access  
java_soft_sessionspace_limit warning limit on size in bytes of a Java sessionspace  
job_queue_processes maximum number of job queue slave processes  
large_pool_size size in bytes of large pool  
ldap_directory_access RDBMS's LDAP access option  
ldap_directory_sysauth OID usage parameter  
license_max_sessions maximum number of non-system user sessions allowed  
license_max_users maximum number of named users that can be created in the database  
license_sessions_warning warning level for number of non-system user sessions  
listener_networks listener registration networks  
lob_signature_enable n/a enable lob signature  
local_listener local listener  
lock_name_space lock name space used for generating lock names for standby/clone database  
lock_sga Lock entire SGA in physical memory  
log_archive_config log archive config parameter log archive config
log_archive_dest archival destination text string  
log_archive_dest_1 archival destination #1 text string  
log_archive_dest_10 archival destination #10 text string  
log_archive_dest_11 archival destination #11 text string  
log_archive_dest_12 archival destination #12 text string  
log_archive_dest_13 archival destination #13 text string  
log_archive_dest_14 archival destination #14 text string  
log_archive_dest_15 archival destination #15 text string  
log_archive_dest_16 archival destination #16 text string  
log_archive_dest_17 archival destination #17 text string  
log_archive_dest_18 archival destination #18 text string  
log_archive_dest_19 archival destination #19 text string  
log_archive_dest_2 archival destination #2 text string  
log_archive_dest_20 archival destination #20 text string  
log_archive_dest_21 archival destination #21 text string  
log_archive_dest_22 archival destination #22 text string  
log_archive_dest_23 archival destination #23 text string  
log_archive_dest_24 archival destination #24 text string  
log_archive_dest_25 archival destination #25 text string  
log_archive_dest_26 archival destination #26 text string  
log_archive_dest_27 archival destination #27 text string  
log_archive_dest_28 archival destination #28 text string  
log_archive_dest_29 archival destination #29 text string  
log_archive_dest_3 archival destination #3 text string  
log_archive_dest_30 archival destination #30 text string  
log_archive_dest_31 archival destination #31 text string  
log_archive_dest_4 archival destination #4 text string  
log_archive_dest_5 archival destination #5 text string  
log_archive_dest_6 archival destination #6 text string  
log_archive_dest_7 archival destination #7 text string  
log_archive_dest_8 archival destination #8 text string  
log_archive_dest_9 archival destination #9 text string  
log_archive_dest_state_1 archival destination #1 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_10 archival destination #10 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_11 archival destination #11 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_12 archival destination #12 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_13 archival destination #13 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_14 archival destination #14 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_15 archival destination #15 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_16 archival destination #16 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_17 archival destination #17 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_18 archival destination #18 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_19 archival destination #19 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_2 archival destination #2 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_20 archival destination #20 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_21 archival destination #21 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_22 archival destination #22 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_23 archival destination #23 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_24 archival destination #24 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_25 archival destination #25 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_26 archival destination #26 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_27 archival destination #27 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_28 archival destination #28 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_29 archival destination #29 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_3 archival destination #3 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_30 archival destination #30 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_31 archival destination #31 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_4 archival destination #4 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_5 archival destination #5 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_6 archival destination #6 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_7 archival destination #7 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_8 archival destination #8 state text string  
log_archive_dest_state_9 archival destination #9 state text string  
log_archive_duplex_dest duplex archival destination text string  
log_archive_format archival destination format  
log_archive_local_first n/a Establish EXPEDITE attribute default value  
log_archive_max_processes maximum number of active ARCH processes  
log_archive_min_succeed_dest minimum number of archive destinations that must succeed  
log_archive_start start archival process on SGA initialization  
log_archive_trace Establish archivelog operation tracing level Establish archive operation tracing level
log_buffer redo circular buffer size  
log_checkpoint_interval # redo blocks checkpoint threshold  
log_checkpoint_timeout Maximum time interval between checkpoints in seconds  
log_checkpoints_to_alert log checkpoint begin/end to alert file  
log_file_name_convert logfile name convert patterns and strings for standby/clone db  
long_module_action n/a Use longer module and action  
max_datapump_jobs_per_pdb n/a maximum number of concurrent Data Pump Jobs per PDB  
max_datapump_parallel_per_job n/a maximum number of parallel processes per Data Pump Job  
max_dispatchers max number of dispatchers  
max_dump_file_size Maximum size (in bytes) of dump file  
max_enabled_roles n/a max number of roles a user can have enabled  
max_idle_blocker_time n/a maximum idle time for a blocking session in minutes  
max_idle_time n/a maximum session idle time in minutes  
max_iops n/a MAX IO per second  
max_mbps n/a MAX MB per second  
max_pdbs n/a max number of pdbs allowed in CDB or Application ROOT  
max_shared_servers max number of shared servers  
max_string_size n/a controls maximum size of VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2, and RAW types in SQL  
memoptimize_pool_size n/a Size of cache for imoltp buffers  
memory_max_target Max size for Memory Target  
memory_target Target size of Oracle SGA and PGA memory  
multishard_query_data_consistency n/a consistency setting for multishard queries  
multishard_query_partial_results n/a enable partial results for multishard queries  
nls_calendar NLS calendar system name  
nls_comp NLS comparison  
nls_currency NLS local currency symbol  
nls_date_format NLS Oracle date format  
nls_date_language NLS date language name  
nls_dual_currency Dual currency symbol  
nls_iso_currency NLS ISO currency territory name  
nls_language NLS language name  
nls_length_semantics create columns using byte or char semantics by default  
nls_nchar_conv_excp NLS raise an exception instead of allowing implicit conversion  
nls_numeric_characters NLS numeric characters  
nls_sort NLS linguistic definition name  
nls_territory NLS territory name  
nls_time_format time format  
nls_time_tz_format time with timezone format  
nls_timestamp_format time stamp format  
nls_timestamp_tz_format timestamp with timezone format  
noncdb_compatible n/a Non-CDB Compatible  
object_cache_max_size_percent percentage of maximum size over optimal of the user session's object cache  
object_cache_optimal_size optimal size of the user session's object cache in bytes  
ofs_threads n/a Number of OFS threads  
olap_page_pool_size size of the olap page pool in bytes  
one_step_plugin_for_pdb_with_tde n/a Facilitate one-step plugin for PDB with TDE encrypted data  
open_cursors max # cursors per session  
open_links max # open links per session  
open_links_per_instance max # open links per instance  
optimizer_adaptive_plans n/a controls all types of adaptive plans  
optimizer_adaptive_reporting_only n/a use reporting-only mode for adaptive optimizations  
optimizer_adaptive_statistics n/a controls all types of adaptive statistics  
optimizer_capture_sql_plan_baselines automatic capture of SQL plan baselines for repeatable statements  
optimizer_dynamic_sampling optimizer dynamic sampling  
optimizer_features_enable optimizer plan compatibility parameter  
optimizer_ignore_hints n/a enables the embedded hints to be ignored  
optimizer_ignore_parallel_hints n/a enables embedded parallel hints to be ignored  
optimizer_index_caching optimizer percent index caching  
optimizer_index_cost_adj optimizer index cost adjustment  
optimizer_inmemory_aware n/a optimizer in-memory columnar awareness  
optimizer_mode optimizer mode  
optimizer_secure_view_merging optimizer secure view merging and predicate pushdown/movearound  
optimizer_use_invisible_indexes Usage of invisible indexes (TRUE/FALSE)  
optimizer_use_pending_statistics Control whether to use optimizer pending statistics  
optimizer_use_sql_plan_baselines use of SQL plan baselines for captured sql statements  
os_authent_prefix prefix for auto-logon accounts  
os_roles retrieve roles from the operating system  
outbound_dblink_protocols n/a Outbound DBLINK Protocols allowed  
parallel_adaptive_multi_user enable adaptive setting of degree for multiple user streams  
parallel_automatic_tuning n/a enable intelligent defaults for parallel execution parameters  
parallel_degree_limit limit placed on degree of parallelism  
parallel_degree_policy policy used to compute the degree of parallelism (MANUAL/LIMITED/AUTO) policy used to compute the degree of parallelism (MANUAL/LIMITED/AUTO/ADAPTIVE)
parallel_execution_message_size message buffer size for parallel execution  
parallel_force_local force single instance execution  
parallel_instance_group instance group to use for all parallel operations  
parallel_io_cap_enabled n/a enable capping DOP by IO bandwidth  
parallel_max_servers maximum parallel query servers per instance  
parallel_min_degree n/a controls the minimum DOP computed by Auto DOP  
parallel_min_percent minimum percent of threads required for parallel query  
parallel_min_servers minimum parallel query servers per instance  
parallel_min_time_threshold threshold above which a plan is a candidate for parallelization (in seconds)  
parallel_server n/a if TRUE startup in parallel server mode  
parallel_server_instances n/a number of instances to use for sizing OPS SGA structures  
parallel_servers_target instance target in terms of number of parallel servers  
parallel_threads_per_cpu number of parallel execution threads per CPU  
pdb_file_name_convert n/a PDB file name convert patterns and strings for create cdb/pdb  
pdb_lockdown n/a pluggable database lockdown profile  
pdb_os_credential n/a pluggable database OS credential to bind  
pdb_template n/a PDB template  
permit_92_wrap_format allow 9.2 or older wrap format in PL/SQL  
pga_aggregate_limit n/a limit of aggregate PGA memory for the instance or PDB  
pga_aggregate_target Target size for the aggregate PGA memory consumed by the instance  
plscope_settings plscope_settings controls the compile time collection, cross reference, and storage of PL/SQL source code identifier data plscope_settings controls the compile time collection, cross reference, and storage of PL/SQL source code identifier and SQL statement data
plsql_ccflags PL/SQL ccflags  
plsql_code_type PL/SQL code-type  
plsql_debug PL/SQL debug  
plsql_optimize_level PL/SQL optimize level  
plsql_v2_compatibility PL/SQL version 2.x compatibility flag  
plsql_warnings PL/SQL compiler warnings settings  
pre_page_sga pre-page sga for process  
private_temp_table_prefix n/a Private temporary table prefix  
processes user processes  
processor_group_name Name of the processor group that this instance should run in.  
query_rewrite_enabled allow rewrite of queries using materialized views if enabled  
query_rewrite_integrity perform rewrite using materialized views with desired integrity  
rdbms_server_dn RDBMS's Distinguished Name  
read_only_open_delayed if TRUE delay opening of read only files until first access  
recovery_parallelism number of server processes to use for parallel recovery  
recyclebin recyclebin processing  
redo_transport_user Data Guard transport user when using password file  
remote_dependencies_mode remote-procedure-call dependencies mode parameter  
remote_listener remote listener  
remote_login_passwordfile password file usage parameter  
remote_os_authent allow non-secure remote clients to use auto-logon accounts  
remote_os_roles allow non-secure remote clients to use os roles  
remote_recovery_file_dest n/a default remote database recovery file location for refresh/relocate  
replication_dependency_tracking tracking dependency for Replication parallel propagation  
resource_limit master switch for resource limit  
resource_manage_goldengate n/a goldengate resource manager enabled  
resource_manager_cpu_allocation Resource Manager CPU allocation  
resource_manager_plan resource mgr top plan  
result_cache_max_result maximum result size as percent of cache size  
result_cache_max_size maximum amount of memory to be used by the cache  
result_cache_mode result cache operator usage mode  
result_cache_remote_expiration maximum life time (min) for any result using a remote object  
resumable_timeout set resumable_timeout  
rollback_segments undo segment list  
scheduler_follow_pdbtz n/a Make scheduler objects follow PDB TZ  
sec_case_sensitive_logon case sensitive password enabled for logon  
sec_max_failed_login_attempts maximum number of failed login attempts on a connection  
sec_protocol_error_further_action TTC protocol error continue action  
sec_protocol_error_trace_action TTC protocol error action  
sec_return_server_release_banner whether the server retruns the complete version information  
serial_reuse reuse the frame segments  
service_names service names supported by the instance  
session_cached_cursors Number of cursors to cache in a session.  
session_max_open_files maximum number of open files allowed per session  
sessions user and system sessions  
sga_max_size max total SGA size  
sga_min_size n/a Minimum, guaranteed size of PDB's SGA  
sga_target Target size of SGA  
shadow_core_dump Core Size for Shadow Processes  
shared_memory_address SGA starting address (low order 32-bits on 64-bit platforms)  
shared_pool_reserved_size size in bytes of reserved area of shared pool  
shared_pool_size size in bytes of shared pool  
shared_server_sessions max number of shared server sessions  
shared_servers number of shared servers to start up  
shrd_dupl_table_refresh_rate n/a duplicated table refresh rate (in seconds)  
skip_unusable_indexes skip unusable indexes if set to TRUE  
smtp_out_server utl_smtp server and port configuration parameter  
sort_area_retained_size size of in-memory sort work area retained between fetch calls  
sort_area_size size of in-memory sort work area  
spatial_vector_acceleration n/a enable spatial vector acceleration  
spfile server parameter file  
sql92_security require select privilege for searched update/delete  
sql_trace enable SQL trace  
sqltune_category Category qualifier for applying hintsets  
ssl_wallet n/a ssl_wallet  
standby_archive_dest n/a standby database archivelog destination text string  
standby_db_preserve_states n/a Preserve state cross standby role transition  
standby_file_management if auto then files are created/dropped automatically on standby  
standby_pdb_source_file_dblink n/a database link to standby source files  
standby_pdb_source_file_directory n/a standby source file directory location  
star_transformation_enabled enable the use of star transformation  
statistics_level statistics level  
streams_pool_size size in bytes of the streams pool  
tape_asynch_io Use asynch I/O requests for tape devices  
target_pdbs n/a Parameter is a hint to adjust certain attributes of the CDB  
tde_configuration n/a Per-PDB configuration for Transparent Data Encryption  
temp_undo_enabled n/a is temporary undo enabled  
thread Redo thread to mount  
threaded_execution n/a Threaded Execution Mode  
timed_os_statistics internal os statistic gathering interval in seconds  
timed_statistics maintain internal timing statistics  
trace_enabled enable in memory tracing  
tracefile_identifier trace file custom identifier  
transactions max. number of concurrent active transactions  
transactions_per_rollback_segment number of active transactions per rollback segment  
undo_management instance runs in SMU mode if TRUE, else in RBU mode  
undo_retention undo retention in seconds  
undo_tablespace use/switch undo tablespace  
unified_audit_common_systemlog n/a Syslog facility and level for only common unified audit records  
unified_audit_sga_queue_size n/a Size of Unified audit SGA Queue  
unified_audit_systemlog n/a Syslog facility and level for Unified Audit  
uniform_log_timestamp_format n/a use uniform timestamp formats vs pre-12.2 formats  
use_dedicated_broker n/a Use dedicated connection broker  
use_indirect_data_buffers n/a Enable indirect data buffers (very large SGA on 32-bit platforms)  
use_large_pages Use large pages if available (TRUE/FALSE/ONLY)  
user_dump_dest User process dump directory  
utl_file_dir n/a utl_file accessible directories list  
wallet_root n/a wallet root instance initialization parameter  
workarea_size_policy policy used to size SQL working areas (MANUAL/AUTO)  
xml_db_events are XML DB events enabled